Abstract

A hybrid free-space-optical/radio-frequency (FSO/RF) communication system is considered, with the help of amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. We consider various weather conditions to investigate their effects on the system’s performance. We begin by obtaining the cumulative distribution function and probability density function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio for the AF dual-hop FSO communication system with RF backup link. Then, these results are used to derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, average bit-error rate, and average ergodic capacity. The results show that the considered system efficiently employs the complementary nature of FSO and RF links, resulting in impressive performance improvements compared to non-hybrid systems.

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  1. A. Malik and P. SinghFree space optics: current applications and future challengesInt. J. Opt.2015201517
  2. W. LimBER analysis of coherent free space optical systems with BPSK over gamma-gamma channelsJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201519237240
  3. X. Song, F. Yang, J. Cheng, N. Al-Dhahir, and Z. XuSubcarrier phase shift keying systems with phase errors in lognormal turbulence channelsJ. Lightwave Technol.20153318961904
  4. L. Yang, X. Song, J. Cheng, and J. F. HolzmanFree-space optical communications over lognormal fading channels using OOK with finite extinction ratiosIEEE Access20164574584
  5. G. Yang, Z. Li, M. Bi, X. Zhou, R. Zeng, T. Wang, and J. LiChannel modeling and performance analysis of modulating retroreflector FSO systems under weak turbulence conditionsIEEE Photonics J.20179110
  6. L. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Cheng, and J. F. HolzmanFree-space optical communications using on-off keying and source information transformationJ. Lightwave Technol.20163426012609
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  8. M. A. Esmail, H. Fathallah, and M.-S. AlouiniOn the performance of optical wireless links over random foggy channelsIEEE Access2017528942903
  9. M. A. Kashani, M. M. Rad, M. Safari, and M. UysalAlloptical amplify-and-forward relaying system for atmospheric channelsIEEE Commun. Lett.20121616841687
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  12. P. V. Trinh, T. C. Thang, and A. T. PhamMixed mmWave RF/FSO relaying systems over generalized fading channels with pointing errorsIEEE Photonics J.20179114
  13. A. M. SalhabA new scenario of triple-hop mixed RF/FSO/RF relay network with generalized order user scheduling and power allocationEURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking20162016260
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  16. N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, E. E. Kriezis, and M. MatthaiouDiversity combining in hybrid RF/FSO systems with PSK modulationProc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)Japan2011Jun.16
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  18. H. Kazemi, M. Uysal, F. Touati, and H. HaasOutage performance of multihop hybrid FSO/RF communication systemsProc. 4th International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW)Turkey2015Sept.8387
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  25. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. KavehradBER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversityIEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.2007628132819
  26. E. S. Altubaishi and X. ShenPerformance analysis of spectrally efficient amplify-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme for adaptive cooperative wireless systemsWireless Commun. Mobile Computing20151512471258
  27. M. K. Simon and M. S. AlouiniDigital communication over fading channelsJohn Wiley & SonsNew Jersey, USA2005
  28. J. Zhao, S. Zhao, W. Zhao, and K. ChenPerformance analysis for mixed FSO/RF Nakagami-m and Exponentiated Weibull dual-hop airborne systemsOpt. Commun.2017392294299
  29. I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. RyzhikTable of integrals, series, and productsAcademic Press2014
  30. I. Recommendation, 838-3. specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods, ITU-R Recommendations, P Series FasicleITUGeneva, Switzerland2005
  31. B. He and R. SchoberBit-interleaved coded modulation for hybrid RF/FSO systemsIEEE Trans. Commun.20095737533763

Other (31)

A. Malik and P. SinghFree space optics: current applications and future challengesInt. J. Opt.2015201517

W. LimBER analysis of coherent free space optical systems with BPSK over gamma-gamma channelsJ. Opt. Soc. Korea201519237240

X. Song, F. Yang, J. Cheng, N. Al-Dhahir, and Z. XuSubcarrier phase shift keying systems with phase errors in lognormal turbulence channelsJ. Lightwave Technol.20153318961904

L. Yang, X. Song, J. Cheng, and J. F. HolzmanFree-space optical communications over lognormal fading channels using OOK with finite extinction ratiosIEEE Access20164574584

G. Yang, Z. Li, M. Bi, X. Zhou, R. Zeng, T. Wang, and J. LiChannel modeling and performance analysis of modulating retroreflector FSO systems under weak turbulence conditionsIEEE Photonics J.20179110

L. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Cheng, and J. F. HolzmanFree-space optical communications using on-off keying and source information transformationJ. Lightwave Technol.20163426012609

V. Khandelwal, R. Kaushik, and R. C. JainA simple closed form approximation of average channel capacity for weakly turbulent optical wireless linksWireless Pers. Commun.20179526652677

M. A. Esmail, H. Fathallah, and M.-S. AlouiniOn the performance of optical wireless links over random foggy channelsIEEE Access2017528942903

M. A. Kashani, M. M. Rad, M. Safari, and M. UysalAlloptical amplify-and-forward relaying system for atmospheric channelsIEEE Commun. Lett.20121616841687

P. Puri, P. Garg, and M. AggarwalAnalysis of spectrally efficient two way relay assisted free space optical systems in atmospheric turbulence with path lossInt. J. Commun. Syst.20142999112

J. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Zhang, and Z. WangUnified performance analysis of mixed radio frequency/free-space optical dual-hop transmission systemsJ. Lightwave Technol.20153322862293

P. V. Trinh, T. C. Thang, and A. T. PhamMixed mmWave RF/FSO relaying systems over generalized fading channels with pointing errorsIEEE Photonics J.20179114

A. M. SalhabA new scenario of triple-hop mixed RF/FSO/RF relay network with generalized order user scheduling and power allocationEURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking20162016260

M. Usman, H. C. Yang, and M. S. AlouiniPerformance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmissionProc. IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2014-Fall)Canada2014Sept.15

M. Usman, H. C. Yang, and M. S. AlouiniPractical switching-based hybrid FSO/RF transmission and its performance analysisIEEE Photonics J.20146113

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, E. E. Kriezis, and M. MatthaiouDiversity combining in hybrid RF/FSO systems with PSK modulationProc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)Japan2011Jun.16

T. Rakia, H. C. Yang, M. S. Alouini, and F. GebaliOutage analysis of practical FSO/RF hybrid system with adaptive combiningIEEE Commun. Lett.20151913661369

H. Kazemi, M. Uysal, F. Touati, and H. HaasOutage performance of multihop hybrid FSO/RF communication systemsProc. 4th International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW)Turkey2015Sept.8387

X. Song and J. ChengOptical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation in strong atmospheric turbulenceJ. Lightwave Technol.20123034843493

K. Prabu, S. Cheepalli, and D. S. KumarAnalysis of PolSK based FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence with pointing errorsOpt. Commun.2014324318323

M. R. Handura, K. M. Ndjavera, C. N. Nyirenda, and T. O. OlwalDetermining the feasibility of free space optical communication in NamibiaOpt. Commun.2016366425430

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. VaroutasWeather effects on FSO network connectivityJ. Opt. Commun. Networking20124734740

T. H. Carbonneau and D. R. WiselyOpportunities and challenges for optical wireless: the competitive advantage of free space telecommunications links in today’s crowded marketplaceProc. SPIE19983232119128

M. Abaza, R. Mesleh, A. Mansour, and E.-H. AggounePerformance analysis of miso multi-hop FSO links over log-normal channels with fog and beam divergence attenuationsOpt. Commun.2015334247252

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. KavehradBER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversityIEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.2007628132819

E. S. Altubaishi and X. ShenPerformance analysis of spectrally efficient amplify-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme for adaptive cooperative wireless systemsWireless Commun. Mobile Computing20151512471258

M. K. Simon and M. S. AlouiniDigital communication over fading channelsJohn Wiley & SonsNew Jersey, USA2005

J. Zhao, S. Zhao, W. Zhao, and K. ChenPerformance analysis for mixed FSO/RF Nakagami-m and Exponentiated Weibull dual-hop airborne systemsOpt. Commun.2017392294299

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. RyzhikTable of integrals, series, and productsAcademic Press2014

I. Recommendation, 838-3. specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods, ITU-R Recommendations, P Series FasicleITUGeneva, Switzerland2005

B. He and R. SchoberBit-interleaved coded modulation for hybrid RF/FSO systemsIEEE Trans. Commun.20095737533763

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