Abstract

The feasibility of the application of terahertz electromagnetic waves in the diagnosis of prostate cancer was examined. Four samples of incomplete cancerous prostatic paraffin-embedded tissues were examined using terahertz spectral imaging (TPI) system and the results obtained by comparing the absorption coefficient and refractive index of prostate tumor, normal prostate tissue and smooth muscle from one of the paraffin tissue masses examined were reported. Three hundred and sixty cases of absorption coefficients from one of the paraffin tissues examined were used as raw data to classify these three tissues using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM). An excellent classification with an accuracy of 92.22% in the prediction set was achieved. Using the distribution information of THz reflection signal intensity from sample surface and absorption coefficient of the sample, an attempt was made to use the TPI system to identify the boundaries of the different tissues involved (prostate tumors, normal and smooth muscles). The location of three identified regions in the terahertz images (frequency domain slice absorption coefficient imaging, 1.2 THz) were compared with those obtained from the histopathologic examination. The tissue tumor region had a distinctively visible color and could well be distinguished from other tissue regions in terahertz images. Results indicate that a THz spectroscopy imaging system can be efficiently used in conjunction with the proposed advanced computer-based mathematical analysis method to identify tumor regions in the paraffin tissue mass of prostate cancer.

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Other (32)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. FattingerFar-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductorsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B1990720062015

N. Khiabani, Y. Huang, and Y.-C. ShenComparison of ultra-wideband THz generation and detection systemsProc. European Conference on Antennas & Propagation (EUCAP)Rome, Italy2011May.457461

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, and R. HillenbrandTerahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevicesNano Lett.2008837663770

E. Pickwell and V. P. WallaceBiomedical applications of terahertz technologyJ. Phys. D: Appl. Phys200638R301

P. H. SiegelTerahertz technology in biology and medicineIEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.20045224382447

R. M. Woodward, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. WallaceTissue classification using terahertz pulsed imagingProc. SPIE200453182333

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, and P. KleinebuddeNon-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomographyOpt. Lasers Eng.201149361365

S. ZhongProgress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a reviewFront. Mech. Eng.201914273281

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. PepperSimulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systemsAppl. Phys. Lett.20048421902192

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, and R. KerstingIdentification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopyPhys. Rev. Lett.200493267401

T. T. L. Kristensen, W. Withayachumnankul, P. U. Jepsen, and D. AbbottModeling terahertz heating effects on waterOpt. Express20101847274739

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. AbbottTerahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial studyElectron. Lett.200945343345

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. ZhangThe impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurementsPhys. Med. Biol.2008533501

G. M. Png, R. J. Falconer, B. M. Fischer, H. A. Zakaria, S. P. Mickan, A. P. J. Middelberg, and D. AbbottTerahertz spectroscopic differentiation of microstructures in protein gelsOpt. Express2009171310213115

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, and H. T. NguyenThe potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skinIEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.20155990998

W. C. D. GroatNeurobiology of IncontinenceJohn Wiley & SonsEngland1990Central neural control of the lower urinary tract

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, and J. O. BarentszThe diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysisClin. Radiol.200863387395

R. W. CootneyUltrasound imaging: principles and applications in rodent researchILAR J.200142233247

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, and I. S. ShergillThe role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a reviewExpert Rev. Med. Devices201412175182

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. ArnoneTerahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumorsRadiology2006239533540

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. CoutazA reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopyIEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.20022739746

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanMaterial parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopyJ. Opt. Soc. Am. A20011815621571

C. Cortes and V. VapnikSupport-vector networksMach. Learn.199520273297

C. J. C. BurgesA tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognitionData Min. Knowl. Disc.19982121167

V. N. VapnikAn overview of statistical learning theoryIEEE Trans. Neural. Netw.199910988999

J. A. K. Suykens and J. VandewalleLeast squares support vector machine classifiersNeural Process. Lett.19999293300

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. YamamotoOrigin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopyPhys. Med. Biol.2016616808

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, and P. L. GranjaStudy of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniquesProc. SPIE2014928692864H

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. HaTerahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinomaAppl. Spectmsc.20066011271133

H. Chen, T.-H. Chen, T.-F. Tseng, J.-T. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Fu, W.- J. Lee, Y.-F. Tsai, Y.-Y. Huang, E. Y. Chuang, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. SunHigh-sensitivity in vivo THz transmission imaging of early human breast cancer in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse modelOpt. Express2011192155221562

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. GilesDevelopment of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detectionProc. SPIE2016974797470F

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, and R. H. GilesTerahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectivesWorld J. Gastrointest. Endosc.20179346358

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