Abstract

In this paper, a new method is presented to measure the refractive index of single plain glass or multilayered materials, based on a laser frequency-shifted confocal feedback microscope. Combining the laser frequency-shifted feedback technique and the confocal effect, the method can attain high axial-positioning accuracy, stability and sensitivity. Measurements of different samples are given, including N-BK7 glass, Silica plain glass, and a microfluidic chip with four layers. The results for N-BK7 glass and Silica plain glass show that the measurement uncertainty in the refractive index is better than 0.001. Meanwhile, the feasibility of this method for multilayered materials is tested. Compared to conventional methods, this system is more compact and has less difficulty in sample processing, and thus is promising for applications in the area of refractive-index measurement.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. S. SinghRefractive index measurement and its applicationsPhys. Scr.200265167180
  2. J. W. Ye, M. Xia, and K.-C. YangAn improved differential algorithm for the critical-angle refractometerOptoelectron. Lett.201915108112
  3. V. G. Plotnichenko and V. O. SokolovInfluence of absorption on the refractive index determination accuracy by the minimum deviation methodAppl. Opt.201857639647
  4. G. H. MeetenRefractive index errors in the critical-angle and the Brewster-angle methods applied to absorbing and heterogeneous materialsMeas. Sci. Technol.19978728733
  5. C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. PaulsonEllipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigationJ. Appl. Phys.19988333233336
  6. Y. Liang, F. Wang, X. Luo, Q. Li, T. Lin, I. T. Ferguson, Q. Yang, L. Wan, and Z. C. FengInvestigation of the optical properties of InSb thin films grown on GaAs by temperature-dependent spectroscopic ellipsometryJ. Appl. Spectrosc.201986276282
  7. D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. SchubertMonoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometryAppl. Phys. Lett.200994011914
  8. S. Guo, G. Gustafsson, O. J. Hagel, and H. ArwinDetermination of refractive index and thickness of thick transparent films by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry: application to benzocyclobutene filmsAppl. Opt.19963516931699
  9. T. Schneider, D. Leduc, C. Lupi, J. Cardin, H. Gundel, and C. BoisrobertA method to retrieve optical and geometrical characteristics of three layer waveguides from m-lines measurementsJ. Appl. Phys.2008103063110
  10. T. Wood, V. Brissonneau, J.-B. Brückner, G. Berginc, F. Flory, J. L. Rouzo, and L. EscoubasOptical measurement of exposure depth and refractive index in positive photoresistsOpt. Commun.2013291184192
  11. S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantome, and F. Florym-Lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguidesJ. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.20002188195
  12. R. Ince and E. HüseyinoğluDecoupling refractive index and geometric thickness from interferometric measurements of a quartz sample using a fourth-order polynomialAppl. Opt.20074634983503
  13. G. D. Gillen and S. GuhaUse of michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometry for independent determination of the refractive index and physical thickness of wafersAppl. Opt.200544344347
  14. S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Lim, and K. H. KimAbsolute refractive index measurement method over a broad wavelength region based on white-light interferometryAppl. Opt.201049910914
  15. N. A. Andrushchak, O. I. Syrotynsky, I. D. Karbovnyk, Y. V. Bobitskii, A. S. Andrushchak, and A. V. KitykInterferometry technique for refractive index measurements at subcentimeter wavelengthsMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.20115311931196
  16. H. J. Choi, H. H. Lim, H. S. Moon, T. B. Eom, J. J. Ju, and M. ChaMeasurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plate by dual-wavelength interferenceOpt. Express20101894299434
  17. L. Xu, S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and L. SunSimultaneous measurement of refractive-index and thickness for optical materials by laser feedback interferometryRev. Sci. Instrum.201485083111
  18. C. J. Hao, Y. Lu, M. T. Wang, B. Q. Wu, L. C. Duan, and J. Q. YaoSurface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor based on active photonic crystal fiberIEEE Photonics J.201354801108
  19. L. Ji, X. Sun, G. He, Y. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, and D. ZhangSurface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor based on ultraviolet bleached polymer waveguideSens. Actuator B2017244373379
  20. B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, M. F. Fehri, A. Kabashin, and M. SkorobogatiyPhotonic bandgap fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensorsOpt. Express2007151141311426
  21. K. OtsukaEffects of external perturbations on LiNdP4O12 lasersIEEE J. Quantum. Electron.197915655663
  22. P. G. R. King and G. J. StewardMetrology with an optical maserNew Sci.19631714
  23. S. Donati, G. Giuliani, and S. MerloLaser diode feedback interferometer for measurement of displacements without ambiguityIEEE J. Quantum. Electron.199531113119
  24. B. Ovryn and J. H. AndrewsPhase-shifted laser feedback interferometryOpt. Lett.19982310781080
  25. L. Scalise, Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, G. Plantier, and T. BroschSelf-mixing laser diode velocimetry: application to vibration and velocity measurementIEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.200453223232
  26. K. Otsuka, K. Abe, J.-Y. Ko, and T.-S. LimReal-time nanometer-vibration measurement with a self-mixing microchip solid-state laserOpt. Lett.20022713391341
  27. J. Li, H. Niu, and Y. X. NiuLaser feedback interferometry and applications: a reviewOpt. Eng.201756050901
  28. Y. Tan, W. Wang, C. Xu, and S. ZhangLaser confocal feedback tomography and nano-step height measurementSci. Rep.201332971
  29. K. P. Birch and M. J. DownsCorrection to the updated Edlén equation for the refractive index of airMetrologia199431315316

Other (29)

S. SinghRefractive index measurement and its applicationsPhys. Scr.200265167180

J. W. Ye, M. Xia, and K.-C. YangAn improved differential algorithm for the critical-angle refractometerOptoelectron. Lett.201915108112

V. G. Plotnichenko and V. O. SokolovInfluence of absorption on the refractive index determination accuracy by the minimum deviation methodAppl. Opt.201857639647

G. H. MeetenRefractive index errors in the critical-angle and the Brewster-angle methods applied to absorbing and heterogeneous materialsMeas. Sci. Technol.19978728733

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. PaulsonEllipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigationJ. Appl. Phys.19988333233336

Y. Liang, F. Wang, X. Luo, Q. Li, T. Lin, I. T. Ferguson, Q. Yang, L. Wan, and Z. C. FengInvestigation of the optical properties of InSb thin films grown on GaAs by temperature-dependent spectroscopic ellipsometryJ. Appl. Spectrosc.201986276282

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. SchubertMonoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometryAppl. Phys. Lett.200994011914

S. Guo, G. Gustafsson, O. J. Hagel, and H. ArwinDetermination of refractive index and thickness of thick transparent films by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry: application to benzocyclobutene filmsAppl. Opt.19963516931699

T. Schneider, D. Leduc, C. Lupi, J. Cardin, H. Gundel, and C. BoisrobertA method to retrieve optical and geometrical characteristics of three layer waveguides from m-lines measurementsJ. Appl. Phys.2008103063110

T. Wood, V. Brissonneau, J.-B. Brückner, G. Berginc, F. Flory, J. L. Rouzo, and L. EscoubasOptical measurement of exposure depth and refractive index in positive photoresistsOpt. Commun.2013291184192

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantome, and F. Florym-Lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguidesJ. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.20002188195

R. Ince and E. HüseyinoğluDecoupling refractive index and geometric thickness from interferometric measurements of a quartz sample using a fourth-order polynomialAppl. Opt.20074634983503

G. D. Gillen and S. GuhaUse of michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometry for independent determination of the refractive index and physical thickness of wafersAppl. Opt.200544344347

S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Lim, and K. H. KimAbsolute refractive index measurement method over a broad wavelength region based on white-light interferometryAppl. Opt.201049910914

N. A. Andrushchak, O. I. Syrotynsky, I. D. Karbovnyk, Y. V. Bobitskii, A. S. Andrushchak, and A. V. KitykInterferometry technique for refractive index measurements at subcentimeter wavelengthsMicrow. Opt. Technol. Lett.20115311931196

H. J. Choi, H. H. Lim, H. S. Moon, T. B. Eom, J. J. Ju, and M. ChaMeasurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plate by dual-wavelength interferenceOpt. Express20101894299434

L. Xu, S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and L. SunSimultaneous measurement of refractive-index and thickness for optical materials by laser feedback interferometryRev. Sci. Instrum.201485083111

C. J. Hao, Y. Lu, M. T. Wang, B. Q. Wu, L. C. Duan, and J. Q. YaoSurface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor based on active photonic crystal fiberIEEE Photonics J.201354801108

L. Ji, X. Sun, G. He, Y. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, and D. ZhangSurface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor based on ultraviolet bleached polymer waveguideSens. Actuator B2017244373379

B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, M. F. Fehri, A. Kabashin, and M. SkorobogatiyPhotonic bandgap fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensorsOpt. Express2007151141311426

K. OtsukaEffects of external perturbations on LiNdP4O12 lasersIEEE J. Quantum. Electron.197915655663

P. G. R. King and G. J. StewardMetrology with an optical maserNew Sci.19631714

S. Donati, G. Giuliani, and S. MerloLaser diode feedback interferometer for measurement of displacements without ambiguityIEEE J. Quantum. Electron.199531113119

B. Ovryn and J. H. AndrewsPhase-shifted laser feedback interferometryOpt. Lett.19982310781080

L. Scalise, Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, G. Plantier, and T. BroschSelf-mixing laser diode velocimetry: application to vibration and velocity measurementIEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.200453223232

K. Otsuka, K. Abe, J.-Y. Ko, and T.-S. LimReal-time nanometer-vibration measurement with a self-mixing microchip solid-state laserOpt. Lett.20022713391341

J. Li, H. Niu, and Y. X. NiuLaser feedback interferometry and applications: a reviewOpt. Eng.201756050901

Y. Tan, W. Wang, C. Xu, and S. ZhangLaser confocal feedback tomography and nano-step height measurementSci. Rep.201332971

K. P. Birch and M. J. DownsCorrection to the updated Edlén equation for the refractive index of airMetrologia199431315316

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.