Abstract

Fresnel zone plates have been widely used in many applications, such as x-ray telescopes, microfluorescence, and microimaging. To obtain an x-ray Fresnel zone plate, many fabrication methods, such as electron-beam etching, ion-beam etching and chemical etching, have been developed. Fresnel zone plates fabricated by these methods will inevitably lead to some nonideal factors, which have an impact on the focusing characteristics of the zone plate. In this paper, the influences of these nonideal factors on the focusing characteristics of the zone plate are studied systematically, by numerical simulations based on scalar diffraction theory. The influence of the thickness of a Fresnel zone plate on the absolute focusing efficiency is calculated for a given incident x-ray’s wavelength. The diffraction efficiency and size of the focal spot are calculated for different incline angles of the groove. The simulations of zone plates without struts, with regular struts, and with random struts are carried out, to study the effects of struts on the focusing characteristics of a zone plate. When a Fresnel zone plate is used to focus an ultrashort x-ray pulse, the effect of zone-plate structure on the final pulse duration is also discussed.

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  2. C. G. SchroerFocusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone platesPhys. Rev. B200674033405
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  6. J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maasdorf, M. Ritala, and C. DavidAdvanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopyUltramicroscopy200910913601364
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  12. S. Tamura, M. Yasumoto, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, M. Awaji, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, Y. Terada, and H. TakanoNew approaches to fabrication of multilayer Fresnel zone plate for high-energy synchrotron radiation X-raysVacuum200680823827
  13. Q. Fan, Y. Liu, Z. Yang, L. Wei, Q. Zhang, Y. Chen, F. Hu, C. Wang, Y. Gu, W. Zhou, G. Jiang, and L. CaoFocusing single-order diffraction transmission grating with a focusing plane perpendicular to the grating surfaceOpt. Express2015231628116288
  14. Q. Fan, S. Wang, Z. Yang, L. Wei, F. Hu, H. Zang, Q. Zhang, C. Wang, G. Jiang, and L. CaoThe realization of long focal depth with a linear varied-area zone plateJ. Mod. Opt.201664244250
  15. H. P. Zang, C. K. Wang, Y. L. Gao, W. M. Zhou, L. Y. Kuang, L. Wei, W. Fan, W. H. Zhang, Z. Q. Zhao, L. F. Cao, Y. Q. Gu, B. H. Zhang, G. Jiang, X. L. Zhu, C. Q. Xie, Y. D. Zhao, and M. Q. CuiElimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray regionAppl. Phys. Lett.2012100111904
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Other (17)

D. AttwoodSoft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and ApplicationsCambridge University PressNew York, UK1999

C. G. SchroerFocusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone platesPhys. Rev. B200674033405

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. V. Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg13 nm high-efficiency nickel-germanium soft x-ray zone platesJ. Vac. Sci. Technol. B201129011012

K. Jefimovs, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, D. Grolimund, J. F. V. D. Veen, and C. DavidFabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard X-raysMicroelectron. Eng.20078414671470

V. V. LiderZone plates for X-ray focusingJ. Surf. Invest.: X-ray, Synchrotron Neutron Tech.20171111131127

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maasdorf, M. Ritala, and C. DavidAdvanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopyUltramicroscopy200910913601364

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, M. Bechtel, M. Weigand, E. Goering, A. Nadzeyka, L. Peto, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, R. Follath, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Yan, and G. SchützIon beam lithography for Fresnel zone plates in X-ray microscopyOpt. Express2013211174711756

I. A. Artyukov, I. N. Bukreeva, V. A. Chernov, R. M. Feshchenko, K. M. Golant, W. Jark, S. V. Lavrishchev, A. N. Mitrofanov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. VinogradovZone plates for hard X-rays fabricated with the SPCVD technologyNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A20096036668

C. David, B. Nohammer, and E. ZieglerWet etching of linear Fresnel zone plates for hard X-raysMicroelectron. Eng.200261-62987992

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. AthasX-ray zone plate fabrication using a focused ion beamProc. SPIE20014145311316

P. Tiwari, P. Mondal, A. K. Srivastava, H. Srivastava, R. Dhawan, and S. RaiFabrication of tungsten Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays using wet etchingJ. Vac. Sci. Technol. B201735051602

S. Tamura, M. Yasumoto, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, M. Awaji, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, Y. Terada, and H. TakanoNew approaches to fabrication of multilayer Fresnel zone plate for high-energy synchrotron radiation X-raysVacuum200680823827

Q. Fan, Y. Liu, Z. Yang, L. Wei, Q. Zhang, Y. Chen, F. Hu, C. Wang, Y. Gu, W. Zhou, G. Jiang, and L. CaoFocusing single-order diffraction transmission grating with a focusing plane perpendicular to the grating surfaceOpt. Express2015231628116288

Q. Fan, S. Wang, Z. Yang, L. Wei, F. Hu, H. Zang, Q. Zhang, C. Wang, G. Jiang, and L. CaoThe realization of long focal depth with a linear varied-area zone plateJ. Mod. Opt.201664244250

H. P. Zang, C. K. Wang, Y. L. Gao, W. M. Zhou, L. Y. Kuang, L. Wei, W. Fan, W. H. Zhang, Z. Q. Zhao, L. F. Cao, Y. Q. Gu, B. H. Zhang, G. Jiang, X. L. Zhu, C. Q. Xie, Y. D. Zhao, and M. Q. CuiElimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray regionAppl. Phys. Lett.2012100111904

Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)Index of RefractionThe Center for X-ray Optics2010http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/getdb2.html

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G. P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, D. L. Olynick, A. L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Y. Song, and D. T. Attwood20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structuresOpt. Lett.20032820192021

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