Abstract

In the field of radio-frequency (RF) communications, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) strategy allows us to attain a higher rate of data transfer due to the multipath-rich environment. In contrast, it is challenging to achieve the same rate in a highly correlated channel that is specific to optical wireless communications. In this paper, we propose the novel concept of an element-by-element optical MIMO system that enables the interference-free reception of parallel symbol streams; it achieves this by using an angular filter (AF) with a narrow transparent window. The AF consists of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, and the angular selectivity is obtained by using the extremely small wave vector regime. We demonstrate that the capacity of the proposed system increases linearly with the minimum number of transmit source elements and receive detectors, which is similar to conventional RF MIMO systems.

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2016 (2)

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

H. Iizuka, N. Engheta, and S. Sugiura, Extremely small wavevector regime in a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure for angular transmission filtering, Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 38293832, 2016.

2015 (4)

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas, Spatial filtering with photonic crystals, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, 2015, Art. no. .

T. Q. Wang, R. J. Green, and J. Armstrong, MIMO optical wireless communications using ACO-OFDM and a prism-array receiver, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 19591971, 2015.

C. He, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, Performance of optical receivers using photodetectors with different fields of view in a MIMO ACO-OFDM system, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 49574967, 2015.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, Maximizing constrained capacity of power-imbalanced optical wireless MIMO communications using spatial modulation, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 519527, 2015.

2014 (5)

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

Y. Wang and N. Chi, Demonstration of high-speed 2$\times$2 non-imaging MIMO Nyquist single carrier visible light communication with frequency domain equalization, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 20872093, 2014.

W. O. Popoola and H. Haas, Demonstration of the merit and limitation of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19601965, 2014.

Y. Shenet al., Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity, Physical Rev. B, vol. 90, no. 12, 2014, Art. no. .

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

2013 (4)

T. Fath and H. Haas, Performance comparison of MIMO techniques for optical wireless communications in indoor environments, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 733742, 2013.

A. H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. OBrien, A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171174, 2013.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 19681976, 2013.

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and J. Armstrong, Analysis of an optical wireless receiver using a hemispherical lens with application in MIMO visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 17441754, 2013.

2012 (3)

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, A universal space-time architecture for multiple-antenna aided systems, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 401420, 2012.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, MIMO-aided near-capacity turbo transceivers: Taxonomy and performance versus complexity, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 421442, 2012.

2011 (4)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 5662, 2011.

K. D. Dambul, D. C. OBrien, and G. Faulkner, Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9799, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, Optical spatial modulation, IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234244, 2011.

R. E. Hamam, I. Celanovic, and M. Soljai, Angular photonic band gap, Physical Rev. A, vol. 83, no. 3, 2011, Art. no. .

2010 (1)

E. Bayaki and R. Schober, On space-time coding for free-space optical systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 5862, 2010.

2009 (1)

L. Zenget al., High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 16541662, 2009.

2008 (1)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

2006 (1)

D. Takase and T. Ohtsuki, Spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO communications over indoor environment, IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 13641371, 2006.

2004 (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100107, 2004.

2003 (1)

Y. Alqudah and M. Kavehrad, MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 15541560, 2003.

1998 (1)

Y. Finket al., A dielectric omnidirectional reflector, Science, vol. 282, no. 5394, pp. 16791682, 1998.

1990 (1)

K. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures, Physical Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 31523155, 1990.

Alqudah, Y.

Y. Alqudah and M. Kavehrad, MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 15541560, 2003.

Armstrong, J.

T. Q. Wang, R. J. Green, and J. Armstrong, MIMO optical wireless communications using ACO-OFDM and a prism-array receiver, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 19591971, 2015.

C. He, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, Performance of optical receivers using photodetectors with different fields of view in a MIMO ACO-OFDM system, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 49574967, 2015.

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and J. Armstrong, Analysis of an optical wireless receiver using a hemispherical lens with application in MIMO visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 17441754, 2013.

T. Q. Wang and J. Armstrong, Performance of indoor MIMO optical wireless system using linear receiver with prism array, in Proc. 2014 Aust. Commun. Theory Workshop, 2014, pp. 5156.

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, Angular diversity for indoor MIMO optical wireless communications, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2015, pp. 50665071.

Azhar, A. H.

A. H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. OBrien, A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171174, 2013.

Bayaki, E.

E. Bayaki and R. Schober, On space-time coding for free-space optical systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 5862, 2010.

Butala, P. M.

P. M. Butala, H. Elgala, and T. D. C. Little, SVD-VLC: A novel capacity maximizing VLC MIMO system architecture under illumination constraints, in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. Workshops, Atlanta, GA, USA, Dec. 2013, pp. 10871092.

Celanovic, I.

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

R. E. Hamam, I. Celanovic, and M. Soljai, Angular photonic band gap, Physical Rev. A, vol. 83, no. 3, 2011, Art. no. .

Chan, C. T.

K. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures, Physical Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 31523155, 1990.

Chen, S.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, A universal space-time architecture for multiple-antenna aided systems, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 401420, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, MIMO-aided near-capacity turbo transceivers: Taxonomy and performance versus complexity, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 421442, 2012.

Chi, N.

Y. Wang and N. Chi, Demonstration of high-speed 2$\times$2 non-imaging MIMO Nyquist single carrier visible light communication with frequency domain equalization, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 20872093, 2014.

Dambul, K. D.

K. D. Dambul, D. C. OBrien, and G. Faulkner, Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9799, 2011.

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 5662, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, Optical spatial modulation, IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234244, 2011.

P. M. Butala, H. Elgala, and T. D. C. Little, SVD-VLC: A novel capacity maximizing VLC MIMO system architecture under illumination constraints, in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. Workshops, Atlanta, GA, USA, Dec. 2013, pp. 10871092.

Engheta, N.

Fath, T.

T. Fath and H. Haas, Performance comparison of MIMO techniques for optical wireless communications in indoor environments, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 733742, 2013.

Faulkner, G.

K. D. Dambul, D. C. OBrien, and G. Faulkner, Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9799, 2011.

Fink, Y.

Y. Finket al., A dielectric omnidirectional reflector, Science, vol. 282, no. 5394, pp. 16791682, 1998.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012.

Ghrayeb, A.

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

Green, R. J.

T. Q. Wang, R. J. Green, and J. Armstrong, MIMO optical wireless communications using ACO-OFDM and a prism-array receiver, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 19591971, 2015.

Grubor, J.

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

Gyongyosi, L.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

Haas, H.

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

W. O. Popoola and H. Haas, Demonstration of the merit and limitation of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19601965, 2014.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 19681976, 2013.

T. Fath and H. Haas, Performance comparison of MIMO techniques for optical wireless communications in indoor environments, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 733742, 2013.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 5662, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, Optical spatial modulation, IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234244, 2011.

Hamam, R. E.

R. E. Hamam, I. Celanovic, and M. Soljai, Angular photonic band gap, Physical Rev. A, vol. 83, no. 3, 2011, Art. no. .

Hanzo, L.

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, MIMO-aided near-capacity turbo transceivers: Taxonomy and performance versus complexity, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 421442, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, A universal space-time architecture for multiple-antenna aided systems, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 401420, 2012.

L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

He, C.

C. He, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, Performance of optical receivers using photodetectors with different fields of view in a MIMO ACO-OFDM system, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 49574967, 2015.

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, Angular diversity for indoor MIMO optical wireless communications, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2015, pp. 50665071.

Ho, K.

K. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures, Physical Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 31523155, 1990.

Hranilovic, S.

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2005.

Hsu, C. W.

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

Iizuka, H.

Imre, S.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

Ishikawa, N.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, Maximizing constrained capacity of power-imbalanced optical wireless MIMO communications using spatial modulation, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 519527, 2015.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, EXIT-chart-based design of irregular precoded power-imbalanced optical spatial modulation, in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., Boston, MA, USA, Sep. 2015, pp. 15.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ. Press, 2011.

Johnson, S. G.

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ. Press, 2011.

Kavehrad, M.

Y. Alqudah and M. Kavehrad, MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 15541560, 2003.

Komine, T.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100107, 2004.

Langer, K.-D.

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

Liew, T.

L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

Lin, S.

W. E. Ryan and S. Lin, Channel Codes: Classical and Modern. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.

Little, T. D. C.

P. M. Butala, H. Elgala, and T. D. C. Little, SVD-VLC: A novel capacity maximizing VLC MIMO system architecture under illumination constraints, in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. Workshops, Atlanta, GA, USA, Dec. 2013, pp. 10871092.

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H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2001.

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas, Spatial filtering with photonic crystals, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, 2015, Art. no. .

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J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ. Press, 2011.

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H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 5662, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, Optical spatial modulation, IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234244, 2011.

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T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100107, 2004.

M. Nakagawaet al., Illuminative light communication device, U.S. Patent 7 583 901 B2, 1, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US7583901

Ng, S. X.

L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

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A. H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. OBrien, A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171174, 2013.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

OBrien, D. C.

K. D. Dambul, D. C. OBrien, and G. Faulkner, Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9799, 2011.

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D. Takase and T. Ohtsuki, Spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO communications over indoor environment, IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 13641371, 2006.

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Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012.

Popoola, W. O.

W. O. Popoola and H. Haas, Demonstration of the merit and limitation of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19601965, 2014.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 19681976, 2013.

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W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 19681976, 2013.

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Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012.

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J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

Renzo, M. Di

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

Rupp, M.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

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W. E. Ryan and S. Lin, Channel Codes: Classical and Modern. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.

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B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2007.

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E. Bayaki and R. Schober, On space-time coding for free-space optical systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 5862, 2010.

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T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and J. Armstrong, Analysis of an optical wireless receiver using a hemispherical lens with application in MIMO visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 17441754, 2013.

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

Y. Shenet al., Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity, Physical Rev. B, vol. 90, no. 12, 2014, Art. no. .

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Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

R. E. Hamam, I. Celanovic, and M. Soljai, Angular photonic band gap, Physical Rev. A, vol. 83, no. 3, 2011, Art. no. .

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K. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures, Physical Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 31523155, 1990.

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas, Spatial filtering with photonic crystals, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, 2015, Art. no. .

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H. Iizuka, N. Engheta, and S. Sugiura, Extremely small wavevector regime in a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure for angular transmission filtering, Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 38293832, 2016.

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S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, MIMO-aided near-capacity turbo transceivers: Taxonomy and performance versus complexity, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 421442, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, A universal space-time architecture for multiple-antenna aided systems, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 401420, 2012.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, EXIT-chart-based design of irregular precoded power-imbalanced optical spatial modulation, in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., Boston, MA, USA, Sep. 2015, pp. 15.

Takase, D.

D. Takase and T. Ohtsuki, Spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO communications over indoor environment, IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 13641371, 2006.

Tee, R. Y. S.

L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2007.

Tran, T.

A. H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. OBrien, A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171174, 2013.

Walewski, J. W.

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

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T. Q. Wang, R. J. Green, and J. Armstrong, MIMO optical wireless communications using ACO-OFDM and a prism-array receiver, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 19591971, 2015.

C. He, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, Performance of optical receivers using photodetectors with different fields of view in a MIMO ACO-OFDM system, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 49574967, 2015.

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and J. Armstrong, Analysis of an optical wireless receiver using a hemispherical lens with application in MIMO visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 17441754, 2013.

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, Angular diversity for indoor MIMO optical wireless communications, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2015, pp. 50665071.

T. Q. Wang and J. Armstrong, Performance of indoor MIMO optical wireless system using linear receiver with prism array, in Proc. 2014 Aust. Commun. Theory Workshop, 2014, pp. 5156.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and N. Chi, Demonstration of high-speed 2$\times$2 non-imaging MIMO Nyquist single carrier visible light communication with frequency domain equalization, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 20872093, 2014.

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J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ. Press, 2011.

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Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

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L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

Yeng, Y. X.

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas, Spatial filtering with photonic crystals, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, 2015, Art. no. .

Y. Shen, C. W. Hsu, Y. X. Yeng, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook, Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 5662, 2011.

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut. (2)

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, MIMO-aided near-capacity turbo transceivers: Taxonomy and performance versus complexity, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 421442, 2012.

S. Sugiura, S. Chen, and L. Hanzo, A universal space-time architecture for multiple-antenna aided systems, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tut., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 401420, 2012.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

L. Zenget al., High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 16541662, 2009.

T. Q. Wang, R. J. Green, and J. Armstrong, MIMO optical wireless communications using ACO-OFDM and a prism-array receiver, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 19591971, 2015.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. D. Dambul, D. C. OBrien, and G. Faulkner, Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9799, 2011.

A. H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. OBrien, A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171174, 2013.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 19681976, 2013.

Y. Alqudah and M. Kavehrad, MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 15541560, 2003.

T. Fath and H. Haas, Performance comparison of MIMO techniques for optical wireless communications in indoor environments, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 733742, 2013.

E. Bayaki and R. Schober, On space-time coding for free-space optical systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 5862, 2010.

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100107, 2004.

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, Optical spatial modulation, IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234244, 2011.

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. Takase and T. Ohtsuki, Spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO communications over indoor environment, IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 13641371, 2006.

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

Y. Wang and N. Chi, Demonstration of high-speed 2$\times$2 non-imaging MIMO Nyquist single carrier visible light communication with frequency domain equalization, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 20872093, 2014.

W. O. Popoola and H. Haas, Demonstration of the merit and limitation of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19601965, 2014.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, Maximizing constrained capacity of power-imbalanced optical wireless MIMO communications using spatial modulation, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 519527, 2015.

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and J. Armstrong, Analysis of an optical wireless receiver using a hemispherical lens with application in MIMO visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 17441754, 2013.

C. He, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, Performance of optical receivers using photodetectors with different fields of view in a MIMO ACO-OFDM system, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 49574967, 2015.

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 38833892, 2008.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physical Rev. A (1)

R. E. Hamam, I. Celanovic, and M. Soljai, Angular photonic band gap, Physical Rev. A, vol. 83, no. 3, 2011, Art. no. .

Physical Rev. B (1)

Y. Shenet al., Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity, Physical Rev. B, vol. 90, no. 12, 2014, Art. no. .

Physical Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures, Physical Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 31523155, 1990.

Proc. IEEE (2)

M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities and implementation, Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 147, 2014.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. OBrien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless, Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 18531888, 2012.

Science (2)

Y. Shen, D. Ye, I. Celanovic, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljai, Optical broadband angular selectivity, Science, vol. 343, no. 6178, pp. 14991501, 2014.

Y. Finket al., A dielectric omnidirectional reflector, Science, vol. 282, no. 5394, pp. 16791682, 1998.

Other (12)

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012.

M. Nakagawaet al., Illuminative light communication device, U.S. Patent 7 583 901 B2, 1, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US7583901

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2007.

N. Ishikawa and S. Sugiura, EXIT-chart-based design of irregular precoded power-imbalanced optical spatial modulation, in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., Boston, MA, USA, Sep. 2015, pp. 15.

W. E. Ryan and S. Lin, Channel Codes: Classical and Modern. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.

L. Hanzo, T. Liew, B. Yeap, R. Y. S. Tee, and S. X. Ng, Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation, and Space-Time Coding for Transmission Over Fading Channels. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2011.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ. Press, 2011.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2001.

T. Q. Wang and J. Armstrong, Performance of indoor MIMO optical wireless system using linear receiver with prism array, in Proc. 2014 Aust. Commun. Theory Workshop, 2014, pp. 5156.

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, Angular diversity for indoor MIMO optical wireless communications, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2015, pp. 50665071.

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2005.

P. M. Butala, H. Elgala, and T. D. C. Little, SVD-VLC: A novel capacity maximizing VLC MIMO system architecture under illumination constraints, in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. Workshops, Atlanta, GA, USA, Dec. 2013, pp. 10871092.

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