Abstract

We study the techno-economics of submarine systems constrained by a fixed electrical power supply. We show significant cost savings for high-capacity submarine systems using massive space-division multiplexing (SDM), even without assuming any savings from SDM-specific subsystem integration. Systems with about 100 parallel optical paths, e.g., $\sim$ 50 fiber pairs are shown to provide minimum cost/bit, operating at reduced spectral efficiencies and deep within the linear regime. While advanced nonlinearity-optimized fibers and digital nonlinearity compensation schemes provide little to no gain in such systems, SDM integration of amplifiers and transponders is shown to be a source for significant additional cost savings. We further examine the permissible cost premium for multicore fibers in such massively parallel systems and revisit various design tradeoffs for optical amplifiers, showing that a reduced noise figure can be traded for better power conversion efficiency. We also evaluate potential gains from increasing the available electrical supply power and discuss reliability aspects of massively parallel submarine systems.

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2017 (5)

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

M. Secondini and E. Forestieri, “Scope and limitations of the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 893–902,  2017.

R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “Nonlinear interference mitigation: Methods and potential gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 903–930,  2017.

A. Ghazisaeidiet al. “Advanced C + L-band transoceanic transmission systems based on probabilistically shaped PDM-64QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1291–1299,  2017.

2016 (4)

P. Serena, “Nonlinear signalnoise interaction in optical links with nonlinear equalization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1476–1483,  2016.

P. Poggioliniet al. “Analytical and experimental results on system maximum reach increase through symbol rate optimization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1872–1885,  2016.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

2015 (1)

G. Böcherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth efficient and rate-matched low-density parity-check coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4651–4665,  2015.

2014 (3)

2011 (3)

L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Optimizing the subcarrier granularity of coherent optical communications systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, pp. 8079–8084, 2011.

C. Xiaet al. “Impact of channel count and PMD on polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3223–3229,  2011.

P. W. Juodawlkiset al. “High-power, low-noise 1.5-$\mu$ m slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) emitters: Physics, devices, and applications,” J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, pp. 1698–1714, 2011.

2010 (3)

X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent optical OFDM systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, pp. 19039–19054, 2010.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252,  2010.

Arik, S. O.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Balemarthy, K.

K. Balemarthy and R. Lingle, “Bit rate-distance product limits for uncompensated coherent multi-core fiber links under total power constraint,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper P.5.14.

Böcherer, G.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

G. Böcherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth efficient and rate-matched low-density parity-check coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4651–4665,  2015.

Bolshtyansky, M.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

Bolshtyansky, M. A.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Bosco, G.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

Buchali, F.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

Carena, A.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

Chen, X.

Cho, J.

J. Choet al., “Trans-Atlantic field trial using probabilistically shaped 64-QAM at high spectral efficiencies and single-carrier real-time 250-Gb/s 16-QAM,” in Proc.Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th5B-3.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Curri, V.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

da Silva, R.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

Dar, R.

R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “Nonlinear interference mitigation: Methods and potential gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 903–930,  2017.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Accumulation of nonlinear interference noise in fiber-optic systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 14199–14211, 2014.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear Interference noise wizard,” [Online]. Available: http://nlinwizard.eng.tau.ac.il

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Debruslais, S.

S. Debruslais, ”Maximizing the capacity of ultra-long haul submarine systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Netw. Opt. Commun., 2015, pp. 1–6.

Desbruslais, S.

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2013, p. TU1C-4.

Domingues, O. D.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Doran, N.

Downie, J.

J. Downie, “Maximum cable capacity in submarine systems with power feed constraints and implications for SDM requirements,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.4.

Duelk, M.

P. J. Winzer and M. Duelk, “Reliability considerations for parallel 100G carrier-grade Ethernet transport,” [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/hssg/public/jan07/winzer_01_0107.pdf

Ellis, A.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

Feder, M.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Accumulation of nonlinear interference noise in fiber-optic systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 14199–14211, 2014.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear Interference noise wizard,” [Online]. Available: http://nlinwizard.eng.tau.ac.il

Fevrier, H.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Forestieri, E.

M. Secondini and E. Forestieri, “Scope and limitations of the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 893–902,  2017.

Forghieri, F.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

Foschini, G. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

Foursa, D.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

Foursa, D. G.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Frisch, T.

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2013, p. TU1C-4.

Ghazisaeidi, A.

A. Ghazisaeidiet al. “Advanced C + L-band transoceanic transmission systems based on probabilistically shaped PDM-64QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1291–1299,  2017.

Goebel, B.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

Grubb, S.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Huang, K.-Y.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Idler, W.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

Inada, Y.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Jiang, Y.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkiset al. “High-power, low-noise 1.5-$\mu$ m slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) emitters: Physics, devices, and applications,” J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, pp. 1698–1714, 2011.

Kahn, J. M.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Kamalov, V.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Kramer, G.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

Krongold, B. S.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252,  2010.

Lingle, R.

K. Balemarthy and R. Lingle, “Bit rate-distance product limits for uncompensated coherent multi-core fiber links under total power constraint,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper P.5.14.

Lowery, L. B. Du and A. J.

Maher, R.

R. Maheret al., “Capacity approaching transmission using probabilistic shaping and DBP for PFE constrained submarine optical links,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.D.4.

Mateo, E.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Matsuo, S.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

Mecozzi, A.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Accumulation of nonlinear interference noise in fiber-optic systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 14199–14211, 2014.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear Interference noise wizard,” [Online]. Available: http://nlinwizard.eng.tau.ac.il

Mello, D. A.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Mikami, S.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Ogata, T.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Patterson, W. W.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Pilipetskii, A.

A. Pilipetskii, “High capacity submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Commun. Fiber Conf., 2015, Paper W3G.5.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Pilipetskii1, A.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggioliniet al. “Analytical and experimental results on system maximum reach increase through symbol rate optimization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1872–1885,  2016.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

Renaudier, J.

J. Renaudieret al., “First 100-nm continuous-band WDM transmission system with 115Tb/s transport over 100km using novel ultra-wideband semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Th.PDP.A.3.

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

Schmalen, L.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

Schulte, P.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

G. Böcherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth efficient and rate-matched low-density parity-check coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4651–4665,  2015.

Secondini, M.

M. Secondini and E. Forestieri, “Scope and limitations of the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 893–902,  2017.

Serena, P.

P. Serena, “Nonlinear signalnoise interaction in optical links with nonlinear equalization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1476–1483,  2016.

Shieh, W.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252,  2010.

X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent optical OFDM systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, pp. 19039–19054, 2010.

Shtaif, M.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Accumulation of nonlinear interference noise in fiber-optic systems,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 14199–14211, 2014.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear Interference noise wizard,” [Online]. Available: http://nlinwizard.eng.tau.ac.il

Silva, R. da

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Sinkin, O.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

Sinkin, O. V.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Steiner, F.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

G. Böcherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth efficient and rate-matched low-density parity-check coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4651–4665,  2015.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Takehira, K.

K. Takehira, “Submarine system powering,” in Undersea Fiber Communication Systems, 2nd ed. J. Chesnoy Ed. New York, NY, USA: Academic, 2016.

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252,  2010.

Turukhin, A.

A. Turukhinet al., “105.1 Tb/s power-efficient transmission over 14,350 km using a 12-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2016, Paper Th4C.1.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

Turukhin, A. V.

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

Vusirikala, V.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Winzer, P. J.

R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “Nonlinear interference mitigation: Methods and potential gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 903–930,  2017.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

P. J. Winzer and M. Duelk, “Reliability considerations for parallel 100G carrier-grade Ethernet transport,” [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/hssg/public/jan07/winzer_01_0107.pdf

Xia, C.

C. Xiaet al. “Impact of channel count and PMD on polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3223–3229,  2011.

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R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, W. W. Patterson, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077,  2017.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252,  2010.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

G. Böcherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth efficient and rate-matched low-density parity-check coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4651–4665,  2015.

J. Lightw. Technol. (11)

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1599–1609,  2016.

A. Ghazisaeidiet al. “Advanced C + L-band transoceanic transmission systems based on probabilistically shaped PDM-64QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1291–1299,  2017.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

P. Poggioliniet al. “Analytical and experimental results on system maximum reach increase through symbol rate optimization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1872–1885,  2016.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701,  2010.

P. Serena, “Nonlinear signalnoise interaction in optical links with nonlinear equalization,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1476–1483,  2016.

C. Xiaet al. “Impact of channel count and PMD on polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3223–3229,  2011.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694–721,  2014.

R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “Nonlinear interference mitigation: Methods and potential gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 903–930,  2017.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Achievable rates of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 4004–4010,  2017.

M. Secondini and E. Forestieri, “Scope and limitations of the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 893–902,  2017.

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P. W. Juodawlkiset al. “High-power, low-noise 1.5-$\mu$ m slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) emitters: Physics, devices, and applications,” J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, pp. 1698–1714, 2011.

Opt. Express (4)

Other (18)

J. Renaudieret al., “First 100-nm continuous-band WDM transmission system with 115Tb/s transport over 100km using novel ultra-wideband semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Th.PDP.A.3.

P. J. Winzer and M. Duelk, “Reliability considerations for parallel 100G carrier-grade Ethernet transport,” [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/hssg/public/jan07/winzer_01_0107.pdf

J. Choet al., “Trans-Atlantic field trial using probabilistically shaped 64-QAM at high spectral efficiencies and single-carrier real-time 250-Gb/s 16-QAM,” in Proc.Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th5B-3.

K. Takehira, “Submarine system powering,” in Undersea Fiber Communication Systems, 2nd ed. J. Chesnoy Ed. New York, NY, USA: Academic, 2016.

K. Balemarthy and R. Lingle, “Bit rate-distance product limits for uncompensated coherent multi-core fiber links under total power constraint,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper P.5.14.

O. D. Domingues, D. A. Mello, R. da Silva, S. O. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

A. Pilipetskii1, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.1.

J. Downie, “Maximum cable capacity in submarine systems with power feed constraints and implications for SDM requirements,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.4.

A. Turukhinet al., “105.1 Tb/s power-efficient transmission over 14,350 km using a 12-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2016, Paper Th4C.1.

Y. Sun, O. V. Sinkin, A. V. Turukhin, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “SDM for power efficient transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper M2F.1.

R. Maheret al., “Capacity approaching transmission using probabilistic shaping and DBP for PFE constrained submarine optical links,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.D.4.

R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear Interference noise wizard,” [Online]. Available: http://nlinwizard.eng.tau.ac.il

[Online]. Available: https://www.wired.com/2016/05/facebook-microsoft-Laying-giant-cable-across-atlantic/

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2013, p. TU1C-4.

S. Debruslais, ”Maximizing the capacity of ultra-long haul submarine systems,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Netw. Opt. Commun., 2015, pp. 1–6.

A. Pilipetskii, “High capacity submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Commun. Fiber Conf., 2015, Paper W3G.5.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

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