Kasson S. Gibson and Dorothy Nickerson, "An Analysis of the Munsell Color System Based on Measurements Made in 1919 and 1926," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 591-608 (1940)

Kenneth L. Kelly, Kasson S. Gibson, and Dorothy Nickerson J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33(7) 355-376 (1943)

References

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Notations of the 70 Munsell Atlas samples measured at the National Bureau of Standards in 1926, NBS test 46,045.

Hue

Name

Symbol

Value and ChromaV/C

Red

R

2/4

3/7

4/10

5/10

6/8

7/6

8/4

Yellow-red

YR

2/1

3/4

4/5

5/7

6/8

7/7

8/5

Yellow

Y

2/1

3/3

4/5

5/7

6/7

7/8

8/9

Green-yellow

GY

2/1

3/3

4/5

5/6

6/8

7/7

8/6

Green

G

2/1

3/4

4/7

5/7

6/7

7/7

8/5

Blue-green

BG

2/2

3/4

4/5

5/5

6/5

7/5

8/3

Blue

B

2/4

3/5

4/6

5/6

6/5

7/4

8/2

Purple-blue

PB

2/2

3/9

4/10

5/8

6/6

7/4

8/2

Purple

P

2/3

3/6

4/6

5/6

6/4

7/3

8/2

Red-purple

RP

2/2

3/6

4/6

5/6

6/4

7/4

8/2

Table II

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1919 data. Values computed, from spectrophotometric data in Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167 (B.S. test report 23,998) on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I. C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table III

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, diffuse illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table IV

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, 45° illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table V

Average values of Y for samples in 1919 and 1926 tests. These values are computed from the data of Tables II, III and IV, except for the neutral samples, for which the values are taken from Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167.

Computed for noon sunlight. The value of Y for neutral 9/, which is the most selective of the neutral samples, is 0.763 to for I.C.I. Illuminant C. Difference in illuminant therefore will not account for the differences between the values of Y for the neutral samples and the average values of Y for the chromatic samples.

Table VI

Specifications of the five principal Munsell colors, for the Munsell N 5/ given by equal-area disk mixture of these five colors, and for the complements of these five colors at 5/5. The tristimulus specifications of each color have been multiplied by a factor to make Y=0.2500.

Munsell Notation

Tristimulus Specifications

Trichromatic Coefficients

Dominant Wave-Length and Purities (Reference Point:*x=0.3234, y=0.3255)

The reference point for this system is the neutral point N 5/ resulting from equal-area disk mixture of the five principal 5/5 samples; it differs slightly from the point representing I.C.I. Illuminant C.
Dominant wave-lengths were read from a large-scale (x, y)-plot of the spectrum locus by extending straight lines from the point representing the N_{DM} mixture through the point representing the 5/5 sample in question to the spectrum locus.
Values of P_{c} were calculated from the Judd (18) formula, except that for nonspectral colors the line connecting the extremes of the spectrum was taken to represent unit purity. With these values of P_{c}_{(5/5)}, P_{c} for all other samples in this psychophysical system can be calculated from Eq. [10].
Values of P_{e} were calculated from a variation of the Hardy formula (7, p. 59) which results in: P_{e}=P_{c}(y/yλ). P_{e} for all other samples in this psychophysical system can be calculated from Eq. [8].

Table VII

Excitation purities for 70 Munsell notations: derived from the disk-mixture rule (psychophysical); computed from 1926 spectrophotometric data both for diffuse and 45° illumination (1926 data); and from the Glenn-Killian data on the papers of the Munsell Book of Color, with conformity to the Newhall psychological check indicated by direction of difference (psychological).

From Eq. [8].
From Table III.
From Table IV.
Read or interpolated from Table I of the next paper in this series (16) which gives the Glenn-Killian measurements of the papers in the 1929 Munsell Book of Color. The plus and minus signs indicate the directions of the changes necessary to improve agreement with the psychological requirements evaluated in the Newhall subcommittee report (15) forming the final paper of this series. For example, for R 6/8 the excitation purity given by Glenn and Killian is 30.0; but the Newhall data indicate that R 6/8, if it is to fit into the ideal psychological system, should be slightly higher in excitation purity; so a plus sign is added. Two plus signs indicate that the difference is more than slight.
The notations in these columns indicate whether the excitation purities for the 1926 data agree better with the psychophysical system or the psychological. An “n” between the first and second columns of excitation purities indicates “nearer to the psychophysical system,” while “nearer to the psychological system” is indicated by “n” between the third and fourth columns. If the excitation purity found from the 1926 data does not agree significantly better with one than the other, no notation is given.

Tables (7)

Table I

Notations of the 70 Munsell Atlas samples measured at the National Bureau of Standards in 1926, NBS test 46,045.

Hue

Name

Symbol

Value and ChromaV/C

Red

R

2/4

3/7

4/10

5/10

6/8

7/6

8/4

Yellow-red

YR

2/1

3/4

4/5

5/7

6/8

7/7

8/5

Yellow

Y

2/1

3/3

4/5

5/7

6/7

7/8

8/9

Green-yellow

GY

2/1

3/3

4/5

5/6

6/8

7/7

8/6

Green

G

2/1

3/4

4/7

5/7

6/7

7/7

8/5

Blue-green

BG

2/2

3/4

4/5

5/5

6/5

7/5

8/3

Blue

B

2/4

3/5

4/6

5/6

6/5

7/4

8/2

Purple-blue

PB

2/2

3/9

4/10

5/8

6/6

7/4

8/2

Purple

P

2/3

3/6

4/6

5/6

6/4

7/3

8/2

Red-purple

RP

2/2

3/6

4/6

5/6

6/4

7/4

8/2

Table II

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1919 data. Values computed, from spectrophotometric data in Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167 (B.S. test report 23,998) on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I. C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table III

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, diffuse illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table IV

Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, 45° illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Reference point (heterogeneous stimulus): I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Table V

Average values of Y for samples in 1919 and 1926 tests. These values are computed from the data of Tables II, III and IV, except for the neutral samples, for which the values are taken from Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167.

Computed for noon sunlight. The value of Y for neutral 9/, which is the most selective of the neutral samples, is 0.763 to for I.C.I. Illuminant C. Difference in illuminant therefore will not account for the differences between the values of Y for the neutral samples and the average values of Y for the chromatic samples.

Table VI

Specifications of the five principal Munsell colors, for the Munsell N 5/ given by equal-area disk mixture of these five colors, and for the complements of these five colors at 5/5. The tristimulus specifications of each color have been multiplied by a factor to make Y=0.2500.

Munsell Notation

Tristimulus Specifications

Trichromatic Coefficients

Dominant Wave-Length and Purities (Reference Point:*x=0.3234, y=0.3255)

The reference point for this system is the neutral point N 5/ resulting from equal-area disk mixture of the five principal 5/5 samples; it differs slightly from the point representing I.C.I. Illuminant C.
Dominant wave-lengths were read from a large-scale (x, y)-plot of the spectrum locus by extending straight lines from the point representing the N_{DM} mixture through the point representing the 5/5 sample in question to the spectrum locus.
Values of P_{c} were calculated from the Judd (18) formula, except that for nonspectral colors the line connecting the extremes of the spectrum was taken to represent unit purity. With these values of P_{c}_{(5/5)}, P_{c} for all other samples in this psychophysical system can be calculated from Eq. [10].
Values of P_{e} were calculated from a variation of the Hardy formula (7, p. 59) which results in: P_{e}=P_{c}(y/yλ). P_{e} for all other samples in this psychophysical system can be calculated from Eq. [8].

Table VII

Excitation purities for 70 Munsell notations: derived from the disk-mixture rule (psychophysical); computed from 1926 spectrophotometric data both for diffuse and 45° illumination (1926 data); and from the Glenn-Killian data on the papers of the Munsell Book of Color, with conformity to the Newhall psychological check indicated by direction of difference (psychological).

From Eq. [8].
From Table III.
From Table IV.
Read or interpolated from Table I of the next paper in this series (16) which gives the Glenn-Killian measurements of the papers in the 1929 Munsell Book of Color. The plus and minus signs indicate the directions of the changes necessary to improve agreement with the psychological requirements evaluated in the Newhall subcommittee report (15) forming the final paper of this series. For example, for R 6/8 the excitation purity given by Glenn and Killian is 30.0; but the Newhall data indicate that R 6/8, if it is to fit into the ideal psychological system, should be slightly higher in excitation purity; so a plus sign is added. Two plus signs indicate that the difference is more than slight.
The notations in these columns indicate whether the excitation purities for the 1926 data agree better with the psychophysical system or the psychological. An “n” between the first and second columns of excitation purities indicates “nearer to the psychophysical system,” while “nearer to the psychological system” is indicated by “n” between the third and fourth columns. If the excitation purity found from the 1926 data does not agree significantly better with one than the other, no notation is given.