Abstract

In this paper, four different ways are described in which homogeneous, isotropic, nonferromagnetic, Maxwellian media at rest may exhibit absorption and stimulated emission. These four ways may be identified by a positive or negative conductivity, a sink or source-type electric field, a complex dielectric constant, and a complex permeability. The forms of the electromagnetic waves, the refractive index, and the positive or negative extinction coefficient are determined for each process for both absorbing and active media. Spontaneous emission is associated with source-type electric and magnetic fields which generate conduction or displacement currents in the medium with improper phases to contribute to the radiant flux in the incident electromagnetic wave. Stimulated emission is characterized by exponentially increasing incident electric and magnetic fields and an excess of the time average of the outflow of radiant flux over the surfaces of an arbitrary volume. Stimulated emission appears when the time average of the rate at which the source-type electric and magnetic fields do work in carrying certain conduction or displacement currents in directions opposite to the incident electric and magnetic fields is greater than the time average of the rate at which the incident electric and magnetic fields dissipate energy by doing work in carrying other conduction or displacement currents in directions parallel to the incident electric and magnetic fields.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Ruby as a Macroscopic Fluorescing and Laser Material*†

A. I. Mahan, C. Bitterli, S. M. Cannon, and D. G. Grant
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59(1) 49-59 (1969)

Some Macroscopic Properties of Dielectric, Absorbing, and Active Cylinders*†

A. I. Mahan, C. V. Bitterli, and H. J. Unger
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(5) 577-585 (1971)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (4)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (16)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription