Abstract

Contradictory results may be obtained in first-order optics when the ray coordinates are assumed to be infinitesimal at the outset. Consistency is assured if the approximations of first-order optics are made only after the exact relations have, in principle, been obtained. This is illustrated, for the case of imagery in a neighborhood of an arbitrary base ray lying in the plane of symmetry of a plane-symmetric system, by a discussion of the astigmatism of a first-order pencil.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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Equations (31)

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