Abstract

Expressions are obtained for the infrared radiance of a rough ocean surface by a method closely following that of Cox and Munk. For normal viewing, average radiance is found to be practically independent of roughness, but for oblique viewing blackness increases with roughness. Shadowing is treated in a simple approximate manner and estimates of surface radiance are made for glancing angles of viewing: an infrared horizon is predicted. The theoretical results, which are closely substantiated by observations, reveal the dish-shaped character of the ocean and indeed of any rough surface.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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