## Abstract

The dispersion relation of Bloch waves is derived from the properties of a single grating layer. A straightforward way to impose the Bloch condition leads to the calculation of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix through the single grating layer. Unfortunately, the transfer-matrix algorithm is known to be unstable as a result of the growing evanescent waves. This problem appears again in the calculation of the eigenvalues, making unusable the transfer matrix in numerous practical problems. We propose two different algorithms to circumvent this problem. The first one takes advantage of scattering matrices, while the second one takes advantage of impedance matrices. Numerical evidence of the efficiency of the algorithms is given. Dispersion diagrams of simple cubic and woodpile photonic crystals are obtained by using, respectively, the scattering and impedance matrices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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