Abstract

We report here the experimental demonstration of measurement of both twist and transverse stress using polarization modulation in a single all-fiber circuit consisting of a single-mode fiber (SMF)/dual-mode fiber (DMF) in a Sagnac interferometer (SI) loop. The SMF-SI prototype setup is seen to be suitable for precise measurement of twist over a broad range of ±50° and transverse stress up to 5 N with a sensitivity as high as 2.85×106pW/° and 2.08×107pW/N, respectively. It is envisaged that nearly ideal operation for twist measurement can be achieved by appropriately selecting the operating domain (pretwisted Sagnac loop for practical realization of the device) and required magnitude of applied transverse stress (weight yielding maximum sensitivity). Unlike SMF-SI, a DMF assisted SI exhibits asymmetric transmittance yielding a peak shift (45°) in addition to falling/rising peak amplitude of effective power(20μW). This key characteristic is further utilized for tunable measurement of torsion (unidirectional from 70° to 40°) while keeping the sensitivity fixed. This research problem is then analyzed on the avenue of theoretical consideration and using classical polarization optics; we have derived the Jones birefringence matrix that accurately describes the transmission behavior of the configured fiber circuit (SMF-SI and DMF-SI) for each of the three cases, namely, transverse stress, twist, and both twist and transverse stress. Series of experimental measurements for various conditions of induced birefringence (linear/circular) were performed at length, and the results were compared with those determined theoretically towards configuring a twist and stress measuring device. The study provides an understanding of the underlying physics of dual-mode interference in a Sagnac configuration experiencing linear and circular birefringence.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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