The Yule–Nielsen effect is an influence on halftone color caused by the diffusion of light within the paper upon which the halftone ink is printed. The diffusion can be characterized by a point spread function. In this paper, a point spread function for paper is derived using the multiple-path model of reflection. This model treats the interaction of light with turbid media as a random walk. Using the multiple-path point spread function, a general expression is derived for the average reflectance of light from a frequency-modulated halftone, in which dot size is constant and the number of dots is varied, with the arrangement of dots random. It is also shown that the line spread function derived from the multiple-path model has the form of a Lorentzian function.
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