Abstract

Results from different authors showed deviations of radial orientation in the a*-b* plane (tilt) for the major axes of chromaticity-discrimination ellipses centered around the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) red color center [Color Res. Appl. 3, 149 (1978)], which are not considered by most of the current advanced color-difference formulas (e.g., CIEDE2000). We performed a visual experiment using red printed samples in order to test the influence of the separation between samples (gap) on the mentioned tilt. Our results confirm a counterclockwise tilt of fitted a*-b* ellipses with a magnitude of approximately 36° for samples with no separation, which is similar to that detected by other authors, and a reduction of the mentioned tilt owing to the separation of the samples. We detected a tilt of approximately 22° for samples with a black gap of 0.5 mm and a tilt of approximately 25° for samples with a white gap of 3 mm. Notably, the uncertainty of previous values given by the corresponding credibility intervals of 95% posterior probability is approximately ±8° of the mean values. Finally, we study the performance of the most widely used color-difference formulas in the graphic arts sector using our current experimental results, and conclude that the performance of the CAM02-SCD and CAM02-UCS color-difference formulas is significantly better than that of the CIEDE2000 formula.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  35. A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2015 (1)

2012 (3)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36–44 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using medium colour-difference pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 376–383 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. S. Berns, “Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass-fail and colorimetric data,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 459–472 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Maier, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–199 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

1975 (1)

1949 (1)

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Revue d’Optique 28, 261–278 (1949) [R. M. Boynton and K. Knoblauch, “Color difference thresholds in Young’s theory,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 296–309 (1994)].

1942 (1)

Alman, D. H.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

Berns, R. S.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. S. Berns, “Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass-fail and colorimetric data,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 459–472 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

Billmeyer, F. W.

Brockes, A.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

Brusola, F.

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, I. Lengua, B. Jordá, and G. Peris, “Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods,” Opt. Express 23, 15290–15309 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

Cui, G.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Testing uniform color spaces and colour-difference formulae using printed samples,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 326–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Del Barco, L. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dunai, L.

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

Fielder, G. H.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

García, P. A.

Grunau, M.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and E. Hita, “A comparison between the rotation terms proposed by recent CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” in 1st European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Image and Vision (CGIV) (2002), pp. 136–139.

Huang, M.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Testing uniform color spaces and colour-difference formulae using printed samples,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 326–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huertas, R.

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and E. Hita, “A comparison between the rotation terms proposed by recent CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” in 1st European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Image and Vision (CGIV) (2002), pp. 136–139.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jordá, B.

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, I. Lengua, B. Jordá, and G. Peris, “Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods,” Opt. Express 23, 15290–15309 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

Kandi, S. G.

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in 8th International Colour Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 446–449.

Lam, C. C.

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using medium colour-difference pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 376–383 (2001).
[Crossref]

Larsen, W. A.

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Revue d’Optique 28, 261–278 (1949) [R. M. Boynton and K. Knoblauch, “Color difference thresholds in Young’s theory,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 296–309 (1994)].

Lengua, I.

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, I. Lengua, B. Jordá, and G. Peris, “Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods,” Opt. Express 23, 15290–15309 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

Li, W.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Testing uniform color spaces and colour-difference formulae using printed samples,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 326–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Testing uniform color spaces and colour-difference formulae using printed samples,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 326–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using medium colour-difference pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 376–383 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[Crossref]

MacAdam, D. L.

Maier, T.

T. Maier, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[Crossref]

Melgosa, M.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and E. Hita, “A comparison between the rotation terms proposed by recent CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” in 1st European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Image and Vision (CGIV) (2002), pp. 136–139.

Montag, E. D.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36–44 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nobbs, J. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in 8th International Colour Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 446–449.

Paffhausen, W.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

Pérez, M. M.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peris, G.

Poza, A. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

Reniff, L.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rich, R. M.

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[Crossref]

Robertson, A. R.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

Romero, J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Saeedi, H.

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

Strocka, D.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tortajada, I.

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, I. Lengua, B. Jordá, and G. Peris, “Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods,” Opt. Express 23, 15290–15309 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

Wen, S.

Wilber, D. C.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36–44 (2003).
[Crossref]

Witt, K.

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–199 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xin, J. H.

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using medium colour-difference pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 376–383 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yaguchi, H.

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yebra, A.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and E. Hita, “A comparison between the rotation terms proposed by recent CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” in 1st European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Image and Vision (CGIV) (2002), pp. 136–139.

Color Res. Appl. (21)

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Del Barco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x, y, Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. Grunau, and G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Testing uniform color spaces and colour-difference formulae using printed samples,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 326–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36–44 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–199 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using medium colour-difference pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 376–383 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours. Part II: parametric effects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 403–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Maier, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. S. Berns, “Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass-fail and colorimetric data,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 459–472 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, “On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 180–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Express (2)

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Other (6)

F. Brusola, I. Tortajada, B. Jordá, I. Lengua, and L. Dunai, “Método para la reproducción precisa de muestras de color impresas a partir de los datos de caracterización necesarios para la generación de perfiles de color ICC,” in 11th Congreso Nacional de Color, Ourense, Spain, 2016, pp. 109–112.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and E. Hita, “A comparison between the rotation terms proposed by recent CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” in 1st European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Image and Vision (CGIV) (2002), pp. 136–139.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in 8th International Colour Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 446–449.

https://sites.textiles.ncsu.edu/color-science-lab/resources .

ISO/CIE, “Colorimetry—Part 6: CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” (2014).

CIE, “Parametric effects in colour-difference evaluation,” (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) BFD (in red) and RIT-DuPont (in green) experimental chromaticity-discrimination ellipses around the CIE red color center compared with the corresponding ellipses from the CIEDE2000 color-difference formula (black lines) for ΔE00=1; CIELAB parameters of the ellipses are obtained from Melgosa et al. [11,12]. (b) Indow et al. [14], Xu and Yaguchi [15], Huang et al. [16], and Wen [17] experimental chromaticity-discrimination ellipses (scaled by a factor of 2) surrounding the CIE red color center compared with the corresponding ellipses from CIEDE2000 color-difference formula (black lines) for ΔE00=1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Distribution of measured color differences for pairs of printed samples with no separation compared with the color differences fitted in eight vector directions obtained via linear regression (LR) passing through the origin.

Tables (9)

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Table 1. Experimental Datasets Used for the Development of CIEDE2000 and Computed Tilt around CIE Red Color Center [3]

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Table 2. Tilt of the Chromaticity-Discrimination Ellipses near the CIE Red [44 37 23] Color Center Reported by Other Authors Whose Datasets Have Not Been Considered for the Development of the CIEDE2000 Color-Difference Formula

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Table 3. Parametric Effects of the Separation of the Samples on the Size and Tilt of the Chromaticity-Discrimination Ellipses Published by Several Authors

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Table 4. Chromaticity Ellipse Parameters in Δa*-Δb* Planea

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Table 5. STRESS Values Obtained by Applying Different Color-Difference Formulas to the Datasets of This Worka

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Table 6. F Values Corresponding to Pairs of Color-Difference Formulasa

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Table 7. F Values Corresponding to Pairs of Color-Difference Formulasa

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Table 8. F Values Corresponding to Pairs of Color-Difference Formulasa

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Table 9. Optimization Tolerance That Minimizes the Number of Wrong Classification Decisions with Respect to a Color-Difference Formula, According to Berns [31]

Equations (1)

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F=STRESSA2STRESSB2,FF(dfA,dfB).

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