Abstract

We evaluated the dynamics of ocular surface temperature using thermal imaging in 21 glaucoma subjects and 19 healthy subjects. On opening of the eye, subjects with glaucoma showed significantly cooler temperatures in the central cornea compared to the control group. The upper eyelid was also significantly cooler just before the eye opened. Immediately after opening the eye, the dynamic of temperature change was different in the two groups. In subjects with glaucoma, the eyes cooled significantly faster, with an average decrease of 0.49°C during the first second compared to 0.24°C in the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that both the stability of the tear film and changes in the ocular blood supply in subjects with glaucoma play an important role in thermal dynamics of the ocular surface.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Nery García-Porta, Francisco Javier Gantes-Nuñez, Juan Tabernero, and Shahina Pardhan, "Characterization of the ocular surface temperature dynamics in glaucoma subjects using long-wave infrared thermal imaging: publisher’s note," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, 1584-1584 (2019)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-36-9-1584

1 August 2019: A correction was made to the funding section.


OSA Recommended Articles
In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

Valentin Aranha dos Santos, Leopold Schmetterer, Martin Gröschl, Gerhard Garhofer, Doreen Schmidl, Martin Kucera, Angelika Unterhuber, Jean-Pierre Hermand, and René M. Werkmeister
Opt. Express 23(16) 21043-21063 (2015)

Automatic assessment of tear film and tear meniscus parameters in healthy subjects using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

Hannes Stegmann, Valentin Aranha dos Santos, Alina Messner, Angelika Unterhuber, Doreen Schmidl, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer, and René Marcel Werkmeister
Biomed. Opt. Express 10(6) 2744-2756 (2019)

Direct observation and validation of fluorescein tear film break-up patterns by using a dual thermal-fluorescent imaging system

Tai-Yuan Su, Shu-Wen Chang, Chiao-Ju Yang, and Huihua Kenny Chiang
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8) 2614-2619 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Sambhara and A. A. Aref, “Glaucoma management: relative value and place in therapy of available drug treatments,” Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 5, 30–43 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. A. Kawali, “Thermography in ocular inflammation,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 23, 281–283 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).
  21. W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Mapstone, “Determinants of corneal temperature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 729–741 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Sambhara and A. A. Aref, “Glaucoma management: relative value and place in therapy of available drug treatments,” Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 5, 30–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kawali, “Thermography in ocular inflammation,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 23, 281–283 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

R. Mapstone, “Determinants of corneal temperature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 729–741 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abreau, K.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Airaksinen, P. J.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akpek, E. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anastasopoulos, E.

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aquavella, J. V.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aragona, P.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aref, A. A.

D. Sambhara and A. A. Aref, “Glaucoma management: relative value and place in therapy of available drug treatments,” Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 5, 30–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arita, R.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arriola-Villalobos, P.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aung, T.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baudouin, C.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berezina, T. L.

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouee, S.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bourne, R. R.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bron, A. M.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caffery, B.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Callan, C.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cappelli, S.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chalmers, R.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. Y.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. C.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cho, W. H.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Corvi, A.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

Craig, J. P.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Crowston, J.

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deb, A. K.

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Denis, P.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Djalilian, A.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dogru, M.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dua, H. S.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dumbleton, K.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Efron, N.

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Erola, E.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Falaschi, G.

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, P. C.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Favuzza, E.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fechtner, R. D.

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Perez, C.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Forsman, E.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Friberg, K.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Galassi, F.

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Feijoo, J.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giambene, B.

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

Graham, A. D.

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gupta, P. K.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hindman, H. B.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. T.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jeanbat, V.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jonas, J. B.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jones, L.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Joo, C. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaila, M.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kaliaperumal, S.

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kalouda, P.

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamao, T.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karpecki, P.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kastelan, S.

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawali, A. A.

A. A. Kawali, “Thermography in ocular inflammation,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 23, 281–283 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, R.

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, S.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keskini, C.

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khouri, A. S.

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kiuchi, Y.

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klemetti, A.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kottaiyan, R.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuo, M. T.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lachkar, Y.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, I. C.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y. H.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lari, H. B.

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lazreg, S.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. C.

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Makela, M.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mapstone, R.

R. Mapstone, “Determinants of corneal temperature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 729–741 (1968).
[Crossref]

Martinez-de-la-Casa, J. M.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matteoli, S.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mazzantini, L.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mencucci, R.

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Metez Soldo, K.

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mizoue, S.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morgan, P. B.

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Munir, W. M.

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

Na, C.

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Na, K. S.

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, J. D.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nichols, J. J.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nichols, K. K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nordmann, J. P.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, Y.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oskala, P.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Panda-Jonas, S.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. G.

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Perez-Bartolome, F.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polo, V.

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pult, H.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Puska, P.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Quigley, H. A.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rao, V. A.

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renard, J. P.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ritch, R.

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rouland, J. F.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saade, C. E.

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saeedi, O.

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

Salopek-Rabatic, J.

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sambhara, D.

D. Sambhara and A. A. Aref, “Glaucoma management: relative value and place in therapy of available drug treatments,” Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 5, 30–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sellem, E.

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Selvin, S.

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sengupta, S.

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shiraishi, A.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh, I.

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stapleton, F.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, B. D.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Suoranta, L.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Teir, H.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tham, Y. C.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tomic, M.

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, A.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Topouzis, F.

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S. L.

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsubota, K.

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tuulonen, A.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Uusitalo, H.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vadoothker, S.

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

Vainio-Jylha, E.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Villani, E.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vuori, M. L.

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wolffsohn, J. S.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wong, T. Y.

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, M.

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, G.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, K. C.

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zavislan, J.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

A. Tuulonen, P. J. Airaksinen, E. Erola, E. Forsman, K. Friberg, M. Kaila, A. Klemetti, M. Makela, P. Oskala, P. Puska, L. Suoranta, H. Teir, H. Uusitalo, E. Vainio-Jylha, and M. L. Vuori, “The Finnish evidence-based guideline for open-angle glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 3–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Kamao, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawasaki, S. Mizoue, A. Shiraishi, and Y. Ohashi, “Screening for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 151, 782–791 (2011).
[Crossref]

BioMed Res. Int. (1)

S. Kastelan, M. Tomic, K. Metez Soldo, and J. Salopek-Rabatic, “How ocular surface disease impacts the glaucoma treatment outcome,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 696328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

F. Galassi, B. Giambene, A. Corvi, and G. Falaschi, “Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 878–881 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Mapstone, “Determinants of corneal temperature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 729–741 (1968).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. E. Saade, H. B. Lari, T. L. Berezina, R. D. Fechtner, and A. S. Khouri, “Topical glaucoma therapy and ocular surface disease: a prospective, controlled cohort study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 132–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Yanagi, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, J. Crowston, and Y. Kiuchi, “Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 39, 252–258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cornea (1)

K. S. Na, K. Han, Y. G. Park, C. Na, and C. K. Joo, “Depression, stress, quality of life, and dry eye disease in Korean women: a population-based study,” Cornea 34, 733–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dev. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. Kalouda, C. Keskini, E. Anastasopoulos, and F. Topouzis, “Achievements and limits of current medical therapy of glaucoma,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 59, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

F. Perez-Bartolome, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, P. Arriola-Villalobos, C. Fernandez-Perez, V. Polo, and J. Garcia-Feijoo, “Ocular surface disease in patients under topical treatment for glaucoma,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 27, 694–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Baudouin, J. P. Renard, J. P. Nordmann, P. Denis, Y. Lachkar, E. Sellem, J. F. Rouland, V. Jeanbat, and S. Bouee, “Prevalence and risk factors for ocular surface disease among patients treated over the long term for glaucoma or ocular hypertension,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 47–54 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

J. P. Craig, I. Singh, A. Tomlinson, P. B. Morgan, and N. Efron, “The role of tear physiology in ocular surface temperature,” Eye (Lond.) 14, 635–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eye Contact Lens (1)

X. Zhang, S. Vadoothker, W. M. Munir, and O. Saeedi, “Ocular surface disease and glaucoma medications: a clinical approach,” Eye Contact Lens 45, 11–18 (2018).

Indian J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. K. Deb, S. Kaliaperumal, V. A. Rao, and S. Sengupta, “Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: a comparative study in an adult Indian population,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 62, 917–922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Indian J. Radiol. Imaging (1)

A. A. Kawali, “Thermography in ocular inflammation,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 23, 281–283 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Glaucoma (1)

W. H. Cho, I. C. Lai, P. C. Fang, C. C. Chien, S. L. Tseng, Y. H. Lai, Y. T. Huang, and M. T. Kuo, “Meibomian gland performance in glaucomatous patients with long-term instillation of IOP-lowering medications,” J. Glaucoma 27, 176–183 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lancet (1)

J. B. Jonas, T. Aung, R. R. Bourne, A. M. Bron, R. Ritch, and S. Panda-Jonas, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 390, 2183–2193 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ocular Surf. (3)

J. P. Craig, K. K. Nichols, E. K. Akpek, B. Caffery, H. S. Dua, C. K. Joo, Z. Liu, J. D. Nelson, J. J. Nichols, K. Tsubota, and F. Stapleton, “TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 276–283 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wolffsohn, R. Arita, R. Chalmers, A. Djalilian, M. Dogru, K. Dumbleton, P. K. Gupta, P. Karpecki, S. Lazreg, H. Pult, B. D. Sullivan, A. Tomlinson, L. Tong, E. Villani, K. C. Yoon, L. Jones, and J. P. Craig, “TFOS DEWS II diagnostic methodology report,” Ocular Surf. 15, 539–574 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Abreau, C. Callan, R. Kottaiyan, A. Zhang, G. Yoon, J. V. Aquavella, J. Zavislan, and H. B. Hindman, “Temperatures of the ocular surface, lid, and periorbital regions of Sjogren’s, evaporative, and aqueous-deficient dry eyes relative to normals,” Ocular Surf. 14, 64–73 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (1)

Y. C. Tham, X. Li, T. Y. Wong, H. A. Quigley, T. Aung, and C. Y. Cheng, “Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ophthalmology 121, 2081–2090 (2014).
[Crossref]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

W. Li, A. D. Graham, S. Selvin, and M. C. Lin, “Ocular surface cooling corresponds to tear film thinning and breakup,” Optom. Vision Sci. 92, e248–e256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

S. Matteoli, E. Favuzza, L. Mazzantini, P. Aragona, S. Cappelli, A. Corvi, and R. Mencucci, “Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach,” Physiol. Meas. 38, 1503–1512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. (1)

D. Sambhara and A. A. Aref, “Glaucoma management: relative value and place in therapy of available drug treatments,” Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 5, 30–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Example of thermal images collected in an eye with glaucoma and in a healthy eye before opening the eye, and then after 1, 4, and 8 s after opening the eye. Thermal scale runs from 29.5°C (blue tones) to 38.8°C (red tones).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Areas where the temperature was evaluated.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Values of the temperature measured in both groups, control and glaucoma, in different areas of the eye. (a) Superior eyelid just before opening the eye; (b) center of the cornea and (c) periphery of the ocular surface just after opening the eye. Data are shown as circles and crosses for healthy and glaucomatous eyes, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Correlation between temperature in (a) the superior eyelid and center of the cornea, (b) the superior eyelid and periphery of the ocular surface, and (c) center of the cornea and the periphery of the ocular surface.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Average ocular surface temperature changes in the central cornea in both groups, glaucoma and control. Cooling rate (b) during the first two seconds, (c) between seconds 2 and 4, and (d) between seconds 4 and 8 after opening the eye.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Temperature changes 0.5, 1, 4, and 8 s after opening the eye in (a) central cornea and (b) periphery of the ocular surface.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of the Repeated Measures ANOVA

Tables Icon

Table 2. Values of Schirmer and FBUT Tests in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

Metrics