Abstract

We discuss quantum-fluctuation characteristics of a second-harmonic generation system that uses an optical resonator to confine only the fundamental field. It was predicted that the available amount of squeezing is limited to 1.76 dB for the fundamental output and 9.54 dB for the second-harmonic output, respectively, irrespective of system parameters. However, these predictions are based on low-order perturbation theory and are unavailable if the nonlinear coupling between the fundamental and the second harmonic becomes large. We consider the spatial evolution of the fields and reveal that the maximum amount of squeezing depends on the cavity loss: Even an arbitrary amount of squeezing is possible for both the fundamental output and the second-harmonic output. We also consider the possibility of parametric oscillation of empty cavity modes pumped by the generated second harmonic and derive the following prediction: In a system that uses a type I phase-matched crystal, the oscillation of the side mode hardly occurs because of sum-frequency generation with the fundamental and scarcely imposes any limitations on squeezing. On the other hand, a system with a type II phase-matched crystal suffers from the oscillation of the polarization mode orthogonal to that of the fundamental input, and squeezing of the second-harmonic output is limited to 3 dB.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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