## Abstract

We present the absorption and emission spectroscopy of ${\mathrm{GdAl}}_{3}({\mathrm{BO}}_{3}{)}_{4}:{\mathrm{Nd}}^{3+}$ as functions of the *σ* and *π* polarizations. From the Judd–Ofelt analysis extended to anisotropic crystals, we have determined the parameters ${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{2\sigma}=1.455\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2},$
${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{4\sigma}=1.175\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2},$
${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{6\sigma}=2.043\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2},$
${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{2\pi}=0.208\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2},$
${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{4\pi}=0.326\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2},$ and ${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{6\pi}=1.257\times {10}^{-20}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}.$ The radiative lifetime of the ${}^{4}{F}_{3/2}$ level is 293 *µ*s. The *σ*-polarized stimulated emission cross section was measured to be $3.0\times {10}^{-19}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$ at the laser wavelength of 1061.9 nm. No excited-state absorption was found at this wavelength. Green generation by self-frequency doubling was obtained with a yield of 4.3%. Blue generation tuneable in the 436-nm to 443-nm range was obtained with a yield of 7.3% from self-sum frequency mixing.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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