## Abstract

We study the effects of macroscopic bends and twists in an optical waveguide and how they influence the transmission capabilities of a waveguide. These mechanical stresses and strains distort the optical indicatrix of the medium, producing optical anistropy. The spatially varying refractive indices are incorporated into the full-wave Maxwell’s equations. The governing equations are discretized by using a vector finite-element method cast in a high-order finite element approximation. This approach allows us to study the complexities of the mechanical deformation within a framework of a high-order formulation that can, in turn, reduce the computational requirement without degrading its performance. The optical activities generated, total energy produced, and power loss due to the mechanical stresses and strains are reported and discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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