Abstract

In this paper, we propose an analytical model to study the effect of Doppler broadening on self-Kerr nonlinearity in a five-level ladder-type atomic system. First- and third-order susceptibilities and the self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient are found as the function of temperature and parameters of laser fields. The analytical model is applied to hot $^{85}{\rm Rb}$ and $^{87}{\rm Rb}$ atoms, and it is shown that under the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, the self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient is enhanced around three transparent spectral regions. When the temperature of atomic vapor increases (i.e., Doppler width increases), the depth and width of the EIT windows decrease accordingly, and therefore the amplitude of the Kerr nonlinear coefficient decreases significantly. In addition, because the frequency gaps between hyperfine levels of upper excited state ${{5\rm D}_{5/2}}$ of $^{85}{\rm Rb}$ atoms are much smaller than those of $^{87}{\rm Rb}$ atoms, the EIT windows as well as the nonlinear dispersion curves for $^{85}{\rm Rb}$ atoms are closer than those for $^{87}{\rm Rb}$ atoms as the Doppler effect presents. The analytical results agree well with the experimental observation when reducing to a three-level atomic system. The analytical model can be used to easily fit the experimental observations of self-Kerr nonlinearity in a five-level atomic system under different temperature conditions and apply to a variety of applications relating to all-optical-switching techniques.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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