Abstract

Using the semiclassical ensemble model, we investigated the correlated electron dynamics in the nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of Ar driven by a few-cycle laser pulse at a fixed ponderomotive energy Up=0.2a.u. and over a wide range of wavelength. When the laser wavelength increases from near-infrared to mid-infrared, the kinetic energy of the retuning electrons and the energy transfer efficiency of recollision both decrease and more NSDI events occur in the second half optical cycle after recollision, which leads to the switching of the electron momentum correlation along the laser polarization direction from side-by-side to back-to-back dominant emission. Our results also show that a significant part of NSDI events undergo a “hard recollision” through which the struck electron acquires more energy and ionizes earlier than the returning electron. This type of NSDI event is responsible for the high momentum part, especially the part with momentum higher than 2Up in the correlated electron momentum spectra along the laser polarization direction.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (2)

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, L. Li, X. Liu, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Ultrafast oscillating-magnetic-field generation based on electronic-current dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013414 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Y. Chen, Y. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Li, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Rabi oscillation in few-photon double ionization through doubly excited states,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013428 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Nie, C. Pai, J. Hua, C. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Wan, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Q. Su, S. Liu, Y. Ma, X. Ning, Y. He, W. Lu, H. Chu, J. Wang, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Relativistic single-cycle tunable infrared pulses generated from a tailored plasma density structure,” Nat. Photonics 12, 489–494 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, N. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Attosecond control of correlated electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by parallel two-color pulses,” Opt. Laser Technol. 108, 235–240 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhou, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the ionization time using attosecond photoelectron interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 253203 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion double ionization form doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krogen, H. Suchowski, H. Liang, N. Flemens, K. Hong, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Moses, “Generation and multi-octave shaping of mid-infrared intense single-cycle pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 222–226 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Li, Y. Li, A. Tong, Q. Li, and P. Lu, “Dissection of electron correlation in strong-field sequential double ionization using a classical model,” Opt. Express 25, 8450–8458 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Universal time delay in the recollision impact ionization pathway of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 50, 225601 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Xu, W. Quan, C. Gong, X. Lai, S. Hu, M. Liu, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Recoil-ion momentum distribution for nonsequential double ionization of Xe in intense midinfrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Multiple recollisions in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013425 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, W. Guo, Y. Zhou, and Z. Wu, “Role of Coulomb repulsion in correlated-electron emission from a doubly excited state in nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013416 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Maxwell and C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, “Controlling below-threshold nonsequential double ionization via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Ye, M. Li, L. Fu, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Y. Liu, and J. Ullrich, “Scaling laws of the two-electron sum-energy spectrum in strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

X. Sun, M. Li, D. Ye, G. Xin, L. Fu, X. Xie, Y. Deng, C. Wu, J. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Mechanisms of strong-field double ionization of Xe,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103001 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corkum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, L. Bai, and J. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023410 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Hao, J. Chen, W. Li, B. Wang, X. Wang, and W. Becker, “Quantum effects in double ionization of argon below the threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 073002 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Hu, “Boosting photoabsorption by attosecond control of electron correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 123003 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, and N. G. Johnson, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Emmanouilidou, “Prevalence of different double ionization pathways and traces of three-body interactions in strongly driven helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, D. H. Madison, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization of Ar and Ne,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023414 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Q. Liao and P. Lu, “Energy correlation in above-threshold nonsequential double ionization at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 021403(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field non-sequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon,” J. Phys. B 41, 031001 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. D. Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-laser-cycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, “Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001(2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. F. D. M. Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosceond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 033002 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S. Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986) [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986)].

1933 (1)

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1933).
[Crossref]

Achtelik, A.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. D. Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-laser-cycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, P.

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion double ionization form doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 033002 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field non-sequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon,” J. Phys. B 41, 031001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986) [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986)].

Bai, L.

Z. Zhang, L. Bai, and J. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corkum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Hao, J. Chen, W. Li, B. Wang, X. Wang, and W. Becker, “Quantum effects in double ionization of argon below the threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 073002 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. F. D. M. Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosceond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ben, S.

S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergues, B.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, and N. G. Johnson, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blaga, C. I.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

Camus, N.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, and N. G. Johnson, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chaloupka, J. L.

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 033002 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chandre, C.

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Xu, W. Quan, C. Gong, X. Lai, S. Hu, M. Liu, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Recoil-ion momentum distribution for nonsequential double ionization of Xe in intense midinfrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hao, J. Chen, W. Li, B. Wang, X. Wang, and W. Becker, “Quantum effects in double ionization of argon below the threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 073002 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S. Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

L. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S. Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Y. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Li, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Rabi oscillation in few-photon double ionization through doubly excited states,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013428 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhou, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the ionization time using attosecond photoelectron interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 253203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, D. H. Madison, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization of Ar and Ne,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023414 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Nie, C. Pai, J. Hua, C. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Wan, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Q. Su, S. Liu, Y. Ma, X. Ning, Y. He, W. Lu, H. Chu, J. Wang, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Relativistic single-cycle tunable infrared pulses generated from a tailored plasma density structure,” Nat. Photonics 12, 489–494 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, H.

Z. Nie, C. Pai, J. Hua, C. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Wan, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Q. Su, S. Liu, Y. Ma, X. Ning, Y. He, W. Lu, H. Chu, J. Wang, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Relativistic single-cycle tunable infrared pulses generated from a tailored plasma density structure,” Nat. Photonics 12, 489–494 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field non-sequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon,” J. Phys. B 41, 031001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corkum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. F. D. M. Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosceond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1207–1211 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986) [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986)].

Deng, Y.

X. Sun, M. Li, D. Ye, G. Xin, L. Fu, X. Xie, Y. Deng, C. Wu, J. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Mechanisms of strong-field double ionization of Xe,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103001 (2014).
[Crossref]

DiChiara, A. D.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L. F.

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, C. I. Blaga, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Inelastic scattering of broadband electron wave packets driven by an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Chaloupka, J. Rudati, R. Lafon, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Observation of a transition in the dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 033002 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1933).
[Crossref]

Doherty, B. J. S.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Emmanouilidou, A.

A. Emmanouilidou, “Prevalence of different double ionization pathways and traces of three-body interactions in strongly driven helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eremina, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ergler, Th.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. D. Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-laser-cycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref]

Faria, C. F. D. M.

X. Liu, C. F. D. M. Faria, W. Becker, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosceond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feuerstein, B.

O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. D. Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-laser-cycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

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D. Ye, M. Li, L. Fu, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Y. Liu, and J. Ullrich, “Scaling laws of the two-electron sum-energy spectrum in strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 123001 (2015).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
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Y. Wang, S. Xu, W. Quan, C. Gong, X. Lai, S. Hu, M. Liu, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Recoil-ion momentum distribution for nonsequential double ionization of Xe in intense midinfrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053412 (2016).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
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M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
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B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).
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X. Sun, M. Li, D. Ye, G. Xin, L. Fu, X. Xie, Y. Deng, C. Wu, J. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Mechanisms of strong-field double ionization of Xe,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103001 (2014).
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Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
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Z. Nie, C. Pai, J. Hua, C. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Wan, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Q. Su, S. Liu, Y. Ma, X. Ning, Y. He, W. Lu, H. Chu, J. Wang, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Relativistic single-cycle tunable infrared pulses generated from a tailored plasma density structure,” Nat. Photonics 12, 489–494 (2018).
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M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
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M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corkum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
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X. Sun, M. Li, D. Ye, G. Xin, L. Fu, X. Xie, Y. Deng, C. Wu, J. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Mechanisms of strong-field double ionization of Xe,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103001 (2014).
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X. Sun, M. Li, D. Ye, G. Xin, L. Fu, X. Xie, Y. Deng, C. Wu, J. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Mechanisms of strong-field double ionization of Xe,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103001 (2014).
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Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
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Y. Wang, S. Xu, W. Quan, C. Gong, X. Lai, S. Hu, M. Liu, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Recoil-ion momentum distribution for nonsequential double ionization of Xe in intense midinfrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053412 (2016).
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T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
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Xu, Z.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
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Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1933).
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Yao, J.

Y. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Kang, X. Lai, W. Quan, X. Liu, X. Hao, W. Li, S. Hu, J. Chen, W. Becker, W. Chu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063415 (2017).
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Ye, D.

D. Ye, M. Li, L. Fu, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Y. Liu, and J. Ullrich, “Scaling laws of the two-electron sum-energy spectrum in strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Z. Zhang, L. Bai, and J. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023410 (2014).
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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corkum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
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Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, L. Li, X. Liu, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Ultrafast oscillating-magnetic-field generation based on electronic-current dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013414 (2019).
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Z. Zhang, L. Bai, and J. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023410 (2014).
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X. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, L. Li, X. Liu, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Ultrafast oscillating-magnetic-field generation based on electronic-current dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013414 (2019).
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Z. Zhang, L. Bai, and J. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023410 (2014).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. CEP-averaged correlated electron momentum spectra along the laser polarization direction for the NSDI of Ar driven by (a) 800 nm, (b) 1400 nm, and (c) 2000 nm five-cycle laser pulses. The ponderomotive potential of each laser pulse is fixed at Up=0.2a.u.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized time delay (Δτ) distribution between double ionization and recollision for the NSDI events in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Time evolution of the energy of the returning (red solid line) and struck (blue dotted line) electrons for three illustrative classical trajectories of the NSDI at 800 nm laser wavelength. Δτ1,Δτ2, and Δτ3 denote the time delay between double ionization and recollision for the three trajectories. The brown dashed line expresses the electric field of the laser pulse.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Separated correlated electron momentum spectra along the laser polarization direction for the NSDI in Fig. 1. The time delay between the double ionization and recollision is in the range of Δτ<0.5T (upper row) and Δτ>0.5T (bottom row) and the wavelengths of the laser fields from the left column to the right column are 800 nm, 1400 nm, and 2000 nm, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Kinetic energy distributions of the returning electron at 0.03T before recollision for the NSDI events in Fig. 1(a) (red dots), Fig. 1(b) (blue circles), and Fig. 1(c) (green squares). The data in each curve have been normalized so that the maximal value is 1. (b) Time evolution of the kinetic energy of a tunneling electron form Ar in a linearly polarized monochromatic light wave field. The blue solid and the yellow dashed lines correspond to the tunneling electron only driven by 800 and 2000 nm light field, while the red solid (800 nm) and purple dashed (2000 nm) lines include the Coulomb attraction from the parent ion. Here, only the movement along the polarization direction is considered, and the electrons all are released at 0.2972T, i.e., 17° after the first peak of the light wave field. The ponderomotive energies of the 800 and 2000 nm light wave fields both are 0.2 a.u. and the black circles denote the moment 0.03T before the recollision.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Correlated electron momentum spectra along the laser polarization direction for NSDI of Ar without considering the identity of the two ionized electrons. Here, Px1 and Px2 denote the momenta along the laser polarization direction of the returning and struck electrons, and the wavelengths of the laser fields are (a) 800 nm, (b) 1400 nm, and (c) 2000 nm, respectively. Other parameters are the same as Fig. 1.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Energy distributions of the returning and struck electrons at 0.03T after recollision for all NSDI events (a) and the NSDI events with one electron where momentum along the laser polarization direction is more than 2Up (b) in Fig. 1(c).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a), (b), and (c) Distributions of the correlated electron ionization time delay between recollision and final ionizations of the returning and struck electrons for the NSDI events with one electron where momentum along the laser polarization direction is more than 2Up in Figs. 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c), respectively. Here, Δτ1 and Δτ2 denote the ionization time delays of the returning and struck electrons, respectively.

Equations (3)

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d2ridt2=[Vne(ri)+Vee(r1,r2)]E(t),
w(t0)=(2(2Ip1)1/2|E|)22Ip11exp(2(2Ip1)3/23|E|),
w(υ0)=υ0|E|exp((υ0)2(2Ip1)1/2|E|).

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