Abstract

We propose and design a nonlinear-polymer-filled asymmetric silicon slot waveguide (SSW) for efficient second-harmonic generation. The distinct modal dispersion of the designed asymmetric SSW is used to achieve phase matching between the zeroth-order waveguide mode at the fundamental frequency ($\lambda = {3.1}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$) and the second-order mode at the second-harmonic frequency ($\lambda = {1.55}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$). Simulation results show a conversion efficiency of ${P_{2\omega }}/{P_\omega } = {32}\% $ with only 10 mW pump power. This high efficiency is a consequence of introducing an asymmetry in the SSW which not only could provide modal phase matching but also preserves high modal overlap between the interacting waves and leads to relatively low propagation loss. The proposed structure, which is well realizable with current CMOS technology, allows extra tuning by the electro-optic effect for eliminating phase mismatch resulting from fabrication errors.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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2019 (1)

S. Das, B. R. Wenner, J. W. Allen, M. S. Allen, and M. Vasilyev, “Investigation of hybrid silicon-nitride/polymer waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics 11, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (2)

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, H. Han, A. Liu, H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Zou, M.-H. Lu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation by mode phase matching in a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 6100807 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, C. Weimann, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Opt. Express 20, 20506–20515 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Second-order nonlinear frequency conversion processes in plasmonic slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1606–1611 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11, 148–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology- a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390, 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation,” Nature 337, 519–525 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, V.

Aldén, M.

Allen, J. W.

S. Das, B. R. Wenner, J. W. Allen, M. S. Allen, and M. Vasilyev, “Investigation of hybrid silicon-nitride/polymer waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics 11, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. S.

S. Das, B. R. Wenner, J. W. Allen, M. S. Allen, and M. Vasilyev, “Investigation of hybrid silicon-nitride/polymer waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics 11, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Andreani, L. C.

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7  Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology- a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bale, D. H.

Barklund, A.

Benight, S.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology- a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bianco, F.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11, 148–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blaicher, M.

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) hntegration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid hodulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7  Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bolten, J.

Borga, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11, 148–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390, 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Boyko, B.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brosi, J. M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology- a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brosi, J.-M.

Byrd, M. J.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cazzanelli, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11, 148–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

Chen, Y.-F.

J. Huang, H. Han, A. Liu, H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Zou, M.-H. Lu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation by mode phase matching in a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 6100807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.-X.

M. Li, L. Zhang, L.-M. Tong, and D.-X. Dai, “Hybrid silicon nonlinear photonics,” Photonics Res. 6, B13–B22 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

Dam, J. S.

Das, S.

S. Das, B. R. Wenner, J. W. Allen, M. S. Allen, and M. Vasilyev, “Investigation of hybrid silicon-nitride/polymer waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics 11, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Leonardis, F.

de Matos, C. J. S.

de Oliveira, R. E. P.

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Degoli, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11, 148–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology- a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7  Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Perspective view of the proposed second-order nonlinear device. The inset shows the cross section of the asymmetric SSW.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Effective indices of the fundamental quasi-TE mode of the asymmetric SSW at the FF and the first three quasi-TE modes at SH frequency as a function of slot shift $s$. (b)–(e) Electric field ($|{E_x}|$) profile of fundamental quasi-TE mode at the FF and the first three quasi-TE modes at SH frequency, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Set of the slot width and displacement values resulting in the PMC between the FF and SH frequency quasi-TE modes and their corresponding nonlinear coupling coefficient $\kappa $.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Variation of the FF and SH wave powers along propagation distance. (b) The influence of the input FF power on the conversion efficiency and the optimum propagation distance.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Maximum achievable efficiencies and their corresponding lengths with respect to the slot width at different PMCs with a fixed input power of 10 mW. (b) The spectral response of SHG for the proposed structure for $w = {150}\,\,{\rm nm}$ and $s = {208}\,\,{\rm nm}$.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Variation of conversion efficiency and optimum length versus scattering loss. The inset shows the spectral response of SHG for the proposed structure.

Equations (4)

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κ = ε 0 χ ( 2 ) : E S H E F F E F F d x d y .
d A 1 d z = α 1 2 A 1 + i ω 4 κ A 2 ( z ) A 1 ( z ) exp ( i Δ β z ) ,
d A 2 d z = α 2 2 A 2 + i ω 4 κ A 1 2 ( z ) exp ( i Δ β z ) ,
Δ n e f f = Γ r 33 n p o l y 3 V 2 w ,

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