Abstract

We present an all-fiber sensor for strain and temperature discrimination by inserting three sections of high birefringence fibers into a Sagnac loop. The principle for strain and temperature discrimination is based on monitoring the wavelength shifts of two different resonant dips that show different sensitivities to temperature and strain. The sensitivities for strain and temperature are measured to be $-{0.93}\;{\rm nm}/^\circ {\rm C}$ and 21 pm/µɛ with discriminative errors of $\pm {0.3}^\circ {\rm C}$ and $\pm {12}\;\unicode{x00B5}\varepsilon$. The proposed sensor with high sensitivity, simple configuration, and low cost may be a promising candidate for various strain and temperature-sensing applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Zhang, X. Qiao, T. Guo, Y. Weng, R. Wang, Y. Ma, Q. Rong, M. Hu, and Z. Feng, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor using PANDA fiber Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 3640–3644 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382–2390 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Leandro and M. Lopez-Amo, “All-PM fiber loop mirror interferometer analysis and simultaneous measurement of temperature and mechanical vibration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1105–1111 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481–483 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2016 (1)

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Zhang, X. Qiao, T. Guo, Y. Weng, R. Wang, Y. Ma, Q. Rong, M. Hu, and Z. Feng, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor using PANDA fiber Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 3640–3644 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1997 (2)

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481–483 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[Crossref]

De la Rosa, E.

Dong, X.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382–2390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Feng, Z.

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, T.

Hu, M.

Hu, Y.

G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jian, S.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kai, G.

Kang, J.

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leandro, D.

Li, M.

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lit, J. W. Y.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, W.-K.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lopez-Amo, M.

Luo, B.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Marques, L. M.

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

Monzon, D.

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481–483 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moon, D. S.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

Rong, Q.

Rosa, E. D. L.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

Santos, S.

O. Frazao, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shao, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, C.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481–483 (1997).
[Crossref]

Su, G.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weng, Y.

Wu, B.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, S.

S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yi, L.

J. Shi, S. Xiao, L. Yi, and H. Chen, “Temperature and strain discrimination using two parallel connected Sagnac loops based on character-1 shaped polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 418–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, S.

Zenteno, L. A.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. D. L. Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481–483 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, Z.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, W. Qian, and M. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a long-period fiber grating inscribed Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2145–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, C.

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-P.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Zhou, Y.

G. Sun, H. Tang, Y. Hu, and Y. Zhou, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high birefringence fiber Sagnac interferometer with enhanced sensitivities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 587–589 (2012).
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Zou, X.

L.-Y. Shao, Y. Luo, Z. Zhang, X. Zou, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect,” Opt. Commun. 336, 73–76 (2015).
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C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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J. Shi, G. Su, D. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Feng, C. Yan, W. Xu, and J. Yao, “A dual-parameter sensor using a long-period grating concatenated with polarization maintaining fiber in Sagnac loop,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 4326–4330 (2016).
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D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, X. Zou, Y. Jin, J. Wang, X. Dong, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor using a fiber loop mirror based on low-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 287, 31–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. Xiao, B. Wu, Y. Dong, H. Xiao, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Strain and temperature discrimination using two sections of PMF in Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 113, 394–398 (2019).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed Sagnac interferometer sensor. ASE, amplified spontaneous emission; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; SMF, single-mode fiber; HBF, high birefringence fiber; PC, polarization controller; ×, splicing point.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured (red curve) and simulated (blue dashed curve) transmission spectrum of the proposed sensor.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Spectrum response of the sensor head with temperature rising from (a) 20°C to 32°C; (b) 32°C to 40°C at a step of 4°C; (c) wavelength shifts of Dip1 and Dip2 versus the temperature change.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spectrum response of the sensor head with strain increasing from (a) 0 to 543.5 µɛ; (b) 652.2 to 1087 µɛ; (c) wavelength shifts of Dip1 and Dip2 versus the increase in strain.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) and (b) Spectrum response of the proposed sensor as temperature rises from 20°C to 40°C under a constant strain of 543.5 µɛ; (c) and (d) spectrum response of the proposed sensor as strain rises from 0 to 1087 µɛ at a fixed temperature of 30°C.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Sensor output determined by Eq. (6) for the temperature variations under a constant strain of 543.5 µɛ and strain variations at a fixed temperature of 30°C.

Equations (9)

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T = ( A 1 + A 2 + A 3 + A 4 ) 2 ,
A 1 = cos ( β 1 + β 2 + β 3 2 ) sin ( θ 1 + θ 4 ) cos θ 2 cos θ 3 , A 2 = cos ( β 1 + β 2 + β 3 2 ) cos ( θ 1 + θ 4 ) sin θ 2 cos θ 3 , A 3 = cos ( β 1 + β 2 β 3 2 ) cos ( θ 1 + θ 4 ) cos θ 2 sin θ 3 , A 4 = cos ( β 1 β 2 β 3 2 ) sin ( θ 1 + θ 4 ) sin θ 2 cos θ 3 , β i = 2 π L i B λ , i = 1 , 2 , 3.
T 2 = A 1 + A 2 + A 3 + A 4 = 0.
d λ d T = λ ( 1 B d B d T + α ) ,
d λ d ε = λ ( 1 B d B d ε + 1 L 2 d L 2 d ε ) ,
[ Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ] = [ C t 1 C ε 1 C t 2 C ε 2 ] [ Δ T Δ ε ] ,
[ Δ T Δ ε ] = ( 1 C t 1 C ε 2 C ε 1 C t 2 ) [ C ε 2 C ε 1 C t 2 C t 1 ] [ Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ] .
δ T = ± | C ε 1 | + | C ε 2 | | C t 1 C ε 2 C ε 1 C t 2 | δ λ ,
δ ε = ± | C t 2 | + | C t 1 | | C t 1 C ε 2 C ε 1 C t 2 | δ λ .