Abstract

Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear transmission degradations.

©2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130, (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).
  4. M. Ohm and J. Speidel, “Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 159–161, (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4
  6. C. Kim and G. Li, “Direct-detection optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK) for spectrally efficient transmission,” Opt. Express 12, 3415–3421, (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3415
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. Kim, G. Goldfarb, Y. Han, Z. Li, X. Li, and G. Li, “WDM transmission over 320 km EDFA-amplified SSMF using 30 Gb/s return-to-zero optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK),” Opt. Express 13, 4044–4049, (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4044
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Han, C. Kim, and G. Li, “Simplified receiver implementation for optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying,” Electron. Lett.,  40, 1372–1373, (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81
  10. T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)
  11. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, C. Kim, and G. Li, “Simplified receiver implementation for optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying,” Electron. Lett.,  40, 1372–1373, (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Kim and G. Li, “Direct-detection optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK) for spectrally efficient transmission,” Opt. Express 12, 3415–3421, (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3415
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, “Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 159–161, (2003).
[Crossref]

Andersen, P. A.

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

Cai, J.-X.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).

Davidson, C. R.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Dorrer, C.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).

Foursa, D. G.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Geng, Y.

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130, (2005).
[Crossref]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).

Goldfarb, G.

Han, Y.

Hasegawa, C.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

Hayase, S.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

Jensen, J. B.

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Jeppesen, P.

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Kikuchi, N.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81

Kim, C.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Nissov, M.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohm, M.

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, “Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 159–161, (2003).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

Pilipetskii, A.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Rosenkranz, W.

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Sasaki, S.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

Sekine, K.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81

Serbay, M.

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Speidel, J.

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, “Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 159–161, (2003).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, T.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

Tokle, T.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130, (2005).
[Crossref]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).

Zsigri, B.

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445, (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, C. Kim, and G. Li, “Simplified receiver implementation for optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying,” Electron. Lett.,  40, 1372–1373, (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, “Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 159–161, (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (5)

T. Tokle, P. A. Andersen, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of an 80 Gbit/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Soceity of America, 2005) paper CMQ4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CMQ4

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and C. Dorrer, “Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1 Tb/s (25×42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100 km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, paper Th4.4.1, (2004).

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, “Chromatic dispersion and SPM tolerance of 8 state/symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) modulated signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper MF81. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-MF81

T. Tokle, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. B. Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, and P. Jeppesen, “Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gbit/s equipment,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’05, Glasgow, Scotland, 6, 11–12, post-deadline paper Th4.1.6, (2005)

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, “Proposal and demonstration of 10 Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation / demodulation scheme,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’04, Stockholm, Sweden, 3, 424–425, paper We3.4.5, (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of a D16PSK transmitter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Symbol allocation diagram of D16PSK as a function of pre-coded signal [PaPbPcPd ] (a). Eye diagram of demodulated D16PSK Ra (t) with (b) and without (c) pulse carving in the back-to-back configuration.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simplified D16PSK direct detection receiver. τ is equal to the symbol period.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dispersion tolerance (left) and optical power spectra (right) of 42.8 Gbit/s D16PSK and 10.7 Gbit/s DBPSK. (Optical power spectra are shown for RZ pulse carving.)
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulation setup of a D16PSK transmission system.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Input power tolerance of a 42.8 Gbit/s D16PSK transmission system, compared to 10.7 Gbit/s DBPSK, after 5 spans (a) and 10 spans (b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( t ) = E 0 cos [ π ( P a ( t ) P b ( t ) ) + π 2 2 ] e j ( π ( P a ( t ) P b ( t ) ) + π 2 2 + P c ( t ) π 4 + P d ( t ) π 8 ) ,
R c 1 ( k ) = R a ( k ) + R b ( k )
R c 2 ( k ) = R a ( k ) R b ( k )
R c ( k ) = R c 1 ( k ) R c 2 ( k ) ,
R d ( k ) = ( R d 1 ( k ) R d 2 ( k ) ) + ( R d 3 ( k ) R d 4 ( k ) )

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