Abstract

The optimization of a wavelength tunable RZ transmitter, consisting of an electro-absorption modulator and a SG DBR tunable laser, is carried out using a linear spectrogram based characterization and leads to 1500 km transmission at 42.7 Gb/s independent of the operating wavelength. We demonstrate that, to ensure optimum and consistent transmission performance over a portion of the C-band, the RF drive and bias conditions of the EAM must be varied at each wavelength. The sign and magnitude of the pulse chirp (characterized using the linear spectrographic technique) is therefore tailored to suit the dispersion map of the transmission link. Results achieved show that by optimizing the drive and DC bias applied to the EAM, consistent transmission performance can be achieved over a wide wavelength range. Failure to optimize the EAM drive conditions at each wavelength can lead to serious degradation in system performance.

©2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.
  2. A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, “Technologies for Ultrahigh Bit-Rate WDM Technologies,” in Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Metting, pp. 290–291 (2007).
  3. R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. P.J. Winzer and R.J. Essiambre, “Electronic pre-Distortion for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2005), Tu4.4.2.
  8. E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.
  10. D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.
  14. R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Real-Time Implementation of Linear Spectrograms for the Characterization of High Bit-Rate optical Pulse Trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms,” OSA Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).
  18. P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. D.J. Kane, “Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses Using Principle Component Generalized Projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics. in Quant. Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Widdowson and A.D. Ellis, “20 Gbit/s Soliton Transmission over 125 Mm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1866–1868 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  22. J.C. Cartledge and B. Christensen, “Optimum Operating Points for Electroabsorption Modulators in 10 Gb/s Transmission Sytems Using Dispersion Shifted Fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 349–357 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Suzuki and N. Edagawa and, “Dispersion Managed high-Capacity Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 916–928 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Real-Time Implementation of Linear Spectrograms for the Characterization of High Bit-Rate optical Pulse Trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Suzuki and N. Edagawa and, “Dispersion Managed high-Capacity Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 916–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms,” OSA Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

D.J. Kane, “Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses Using Principle Component Generalized Projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics. in Quant. Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.C. Cartledge and B. Christensen, “Optimum Operating Points for Electroabsorption Modulators in 10 Gb/s Transmission Sytems Using Dispersion Shifted Fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 349–357 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Widdowson and A.D. Ellis, “20 Gbit/s Soliton Transmission over 125 Mm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1866–1868 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Akulova, Y.

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akulova, Y.A.

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anandarajah, P.M.

R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aoki, M.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Bakhshi, B.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Barry, L.P.

R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barton, J.S.

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergano, N.S.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Berger, J.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boskovic, A.

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

Breuer, D.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cartledge, J.C.

J.C. Cartledge and B. Christensen, “Optimum Operating Points for Electroabsorption Modulators in 10 Gb/s Transmission Sytems Using Dispersion Shifted Fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 349–357 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.Y.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B.

J.C. Cartledge and B. Christensen, “Optimum Operating Points for Electroabsorption Modulators in 10 Gb/s Transmission Sytems Using Dispersion Shifted Fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 349–357 (1998).
[Crossref]

Coldren, C.W.

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.A.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.P.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dey, S.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Dietrich, E.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Real-Time Implementation of Linear Spectrograms for the Characterization of High Bit-Rate optical Pulse Trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms,” OSA Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).

Edagawa, N.

M. Suzuki and N. Edagawa and, “Dispersion Managed high-Capacity Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 916–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A.D.

T. Widdowson and A.D. Ellis, “20 Gbit/s Soliton Transmission over 125 Mm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1866–1868 (1994).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.J.

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.J. Winzer and R.J. Essiambre, “Electronic pre-Distortion for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2005), Tu4.4.2.

Feiste, U.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fish, G.

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fish, G.A.

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

Friedman, D.C.

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

Golovchenko, E.A.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Imai, T.

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.A.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kane, D.J.

D.J. Kane, “Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses Using Principle Component Generalized Projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics. in Quant. Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kang, I.

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Real-Time Implementation of Linear Spectrograms for the Characterization of High Bit-Rate optical Pulse Trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms,” OSA Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).

Kerdiles, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kitatani, T.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Koh, P.C.

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

Komukai, T.

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

Konrad, B.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuppers, F.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, H.B.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.H.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.L.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.B.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Ludwig, R.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Madamopoulos, N.

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

Maher, R.

R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Makino, S.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Martin, M.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maybach, R.L.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, “Technologies for Ultrahigh Bit-Rate WDM Technologies,” in Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Metting, pp. 290–291 (2007).

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

Patterson, W.W.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Petermann, K.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, H.N.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raring, J.W.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, C.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Richardson, D.J.

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roelens, M.A.F.

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rosca, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

Sano, A.

A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, “Technologies for Ultrahigh Bit-Rate WDM Technologies,” in Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Metting, pp. 290–291 (2007).

Schmauss, B.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schow, C.

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, K.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Shiota, T.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Skogen, E.J.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki and N. Edagawa and, “Dispersion Managed high-Capacity Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 916–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sysak, M.N.

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

Thomsen, B.C.

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vaa, M.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

Wang, Z.y.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watts, R.T.

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.G.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weinert, C.M.

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

Widdowson, T.

T. Widdowson and A.D. Ellis, “20 Gbit/s Soliton Transmission over 125 Mm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1866–1868 (1994).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.J.

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.J. Winzer and R.J. Essiambre, “Electronic pre-Distortion for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2005), Tu4.4.2.

Xie, S.

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, A.S.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamada, E.

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.C.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.R.

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H.G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental Comparison of 40 Gb/s RZ and NRZ Transmission over Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2216–2218 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Yamada, T. Imai, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gb/s Soliton Transmission over 2900km of using 1.3μm Singlemode Fibers and Dispersion Compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 728–729 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.C. Zhang, X.L. Li, X.R. Zhang, J.H. Li, A.S. Xu, Z.y. Wang, H.B. Li, Z.B. Li, F. Zhang, and Z.Y. Chen, “42.8 Gb/s Electro-Absorption Modulated NRZ Transmission over 1200 km Standard Singlemode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 43, 237–239 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Widdowson and A.D. Ellis, “20 Gbit/s Soliton Transmission over 125 Mm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1866–1868 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. (7)

J.C. Cartledge and B. Christensen, “Optimum Operating Points for Electroabsorption Modulators in 10 Gb/s Transmission Sytems Using Dispersion Shifted Fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 16, 349–357 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Suzuki and N. Edagawa and, “Dispersion Managed high-Capacity Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 916–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

L.A. Coldren, G. Fish, Y. Akulova, J.S. Barton, L. Johansson, and C.W. Coldren, “Tunable Semiconductor Lasers: A Tutorial,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 22, 193–202 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.W. Raring, L.A. Johansson, E.J. Skogen, M.N. Sysak, H.N. Poulsen, S.P. DenBaars, and L.A. Coldren, “40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Low-Drive-Voltage Electroabsorption-Modulated Transmitters,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 239–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Konrad, K. Petermann, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, C.M. Weinert, H.G. Weber, and B. Schmauss, “Impact of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion in High-Speed TDM Transmission Systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 2129–2135 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Madamopoulos, D.C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, and A. Boskovic, “Study of the Performance of a Transparent and Reconfigurable Metropolitan Area Network,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 937–945 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. in Quant. Electron. (1)

D.J. Kane, “Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses Using Principle Component Generalized Projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics. in Quant. Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. Chen, Y. Shi, C. Qiu, H. Chen, and S. Xie, “Residual Chromatic-Dispersion Monitoring and Dynamic Compensation in 40 Gb/s Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1142–1144 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Real-Time Implementation of Linear Spectrograms for the Characterization of High Bit-Rate optical Pulse Trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R.J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped Return-to-Zero Modulation by Imbalanced Pulse Carver Driving Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
[Crossref]

B.C. Thomsen, M.A.F. Roelens, R.T. Watts, and D.J. Richardson, “Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Spectrographic Techniques for the Complete Characterization of High Bit-Rate Pulses used in Optical Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
[Crossref]

P.C. Koh, C. Schow, Y.A. Akulova, and G.A. Fish, “Correlation Between Dispersion Penalty and Time-Resolved Chirp for an Integrated Widely Tunable Electroabsorption-Modulated SGDBR Laser Across the EDFA Gain Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1011–1013 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Maher, P.M. Anandarajah, and L.P. Barry, “Optimized Performance Map of an EAM for Pulse Generation and Demultiplexing via FROG Characterization,” J. Opt. Commun. 273, 500–505 (2007).
[Crossref]

OSA Opt. Lett. (1)

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms,” OSA Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).

Other (5)

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Shiota, T. Kitatani, S. Tanaka, and M. Aoki, “10Gb/s - 80 km Transmisiso by 100 GHz-Spacing, 8-Channel Wavelength-Tunable 1.55 μm InGaAlAs Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated DFB Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, 2008), OThK4.

P.J. Winzer and R.J. Essiambre, “Electronic pre-Distortion for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2005), Tu4.4.2.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E.A. Golovchenko, W.W. Patterson, R.L. Maybach, and N.S. Bergano, “Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ Modulation Formats in a 64 x x12.3 Gb/s WDM Transmission Experiment over 9000 km,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2001), WF4-1.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, S. Dey, and F. Rosca, “Deployment of 40 Gb/s Systems: Technical and Cost Issues,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Los Angeles, CA, 2004), ThE6.

A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, “Technologies for Ultrahigh Bit-Rate WDM Technologies,” in Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Metting, pp. 290–291 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 40 GHz linear spectrogram pulse measurement setup
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. 42.7 Gb/s transmission setup
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a). BER as a function of transmission distance for a non-optimized transmitter. (b). Corresponding eye diagrams received after 1000 km for 1540.56, 1550.52 and 1560.20 nm respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Linear Spectrogram characterization of the non-optimized pulses with constant bias (-2 V) and an RF drive (2.5 Vpp) applied to the EAM; for the three different wavelengths, (a) 1540.56 nm, (b) 1550.52 nm and (c) 1560.20 nm. Intensity – solid line, Frequency Chirp – circled dotted line.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Alpha Factor as a function of DC bias voltage for EAM at 1540.56, 1550.52 and 1560.20 nm
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Linear Spectrogram characterization of the optimized pulses for the three different wavelengths, (a) 1540.56 nm, (b) 1550.52 nm and (c) 1560.20 nm. Intensity – solid line, Frequency Chirp – circled dotted line.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a). BER as a function of transmission distance for the optimized transmitter. (b). Corresponding eye diagrams received after 1000 km for 1540.56, 1550.52 and 1560.20 nm respectfully.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optical spectra for the three operating wavelengths, recorded after a transmission distance of 1000 km. (a) 1540.56 nm, (b) 1550.52 nm and (c) 1560.20 nm

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