Abstract

In this work, we report the near-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-Er3+ codoped tellurite TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses under 794 nm excitation. A broad emission from 1350 to 1750 nm corresponding to the Tm3+ and Er3+ emissions is observed. The full width at half-maximum of this broadband increases with increasing [Tm]/[Er] concentration ratio up to a value of ~ 160 nm. The energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions is evidenced by both the temporal behavior of the near-infrared luminescence and the effect of Tm3+ codoping on the visible upconversion of Er3+ ions.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. Lihui Huang, Anismesh Jha, Shaoxiong Shen, and Xiaobo Liu, “Broadband emission in Er3+-Tm3+ codoped tellurite fibre,” Opt. Express 12, 2429–2434 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Mori, “1.58-μm Broad-band erbium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 822–827 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient 2 μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 402–404 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  21. A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+-Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
    [Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Mori, “1.58-μm Broad-band erbium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 822–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N.V. Ovcharenko and T.V. Smirnova, “High refractive index and magneto-optical glasses in the systems TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 and TeO2-WO3-PbO,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291, 121–126 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

S.Q. Man, E.Y.B. Pun, and P.S. Chung, “Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168, 369–373 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1990 (1)

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion fluorescences of TeO2- and Ga2O3-based oxide glasses containing Er3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 79–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.L.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Afonso, C.N.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Al-Saleh, M.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Araujo, M.T. de

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arriandiaga, M.A.

R. Balda, L.M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Munoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11836–11846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Azkargorta, J.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, L.M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Munoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11836–11846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Binks, D.

Cassanjes, F.C.

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, P.S.

S.Q. Man, E.Y.B. Pun, and P.S. Chung, “Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168, 369–373 (1999).
[Crossref]

El-Mallawany, R.A.H.

R.A.H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook-Physical Properties and Data, (CRC Boca Raton, FL2001).
[Crossref]

Fernández, J.

R. Balda, L.M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Munoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11836–11846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Navarro, J.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Navarro, J.M.

R. Balda, L.M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Munoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11836–11846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, S.R.

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hanada, T.

Hirao, K.

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion fluorescences of TeO2- and Ga2O3-based oxide glasses containing Er3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 79–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hirao, Kazuyuki

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Huang, Lihui

Iparraguirre, I.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

Jha, Anismesh

Joshi, P.

Kanamori, T.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lacha, L.M.

Liu, Xiaobo

Lousteau, J.

Madigou, V.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Man, S.Q.

S.Q. Man, E.Y.B. Pun, and P.S. Chung, “Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168, 369–373 (1999).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, “1.58-μm Broad-band erbium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 822–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Morse, T.F.

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

Munoz-Martin, D.

Naftaly, M.

Narazaki, Aiko

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nishida, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oikawa, K.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ovcharenko, N.V.

N.V. Ovcharenko and T.V. Smirnova, “High refractive index and magneto-optical glasses in the systems TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 and TeO2-WO3-PbO,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291, 121–126 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petrin, R.R.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pun, E.Y.B.

S.Q. Man, E.Y.B. Pun, and P.S. Chung, “Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168, 369–373 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, S.J.L.

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richards, B.

Serna, R.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

Shen, Shaoxiong

Shikida, A.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sibley, W.A.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, T.V.

N.V. Ovcharenko and T.V. Smirnova, “High refractive index and magneto-optical glasses in the systems TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 and TeO2-WO3-PbO,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291, 121–126 (2001).
[Crossref]

Snitzer, E.

J.S. Wang, E.M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+-Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion fluorescences of TeO2- and Ga2O3-based oxide glasses containing Er3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 79–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Soga, Naohiro

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

Souza, A.B. de

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suscavage, M.J.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+-Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion fluorescences of TeO2- and Ga2O3-based oxide glasses containing Er3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 79–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Katsuhisa

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

Toratani, H.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tsang, Y.

Vermelho, M.V.D.

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vogel, E.M.

J.S. Wang, E.M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.S.

J.S. Wang, E.M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yanagita, H.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D.C.

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S.R. Han, and T.F. Morse, “Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped silica fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507–511 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Mori, “1.58-μm Broad-band erbium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 822–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Aiko Narazaki, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, and Naohiro Soga, “Induction and relaxation of optical second-order nonlinearity in tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2046–2051 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C.N. Afonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033112–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion fluorescences of TeO2- and Ga2O3-based oxide glasses containing Er3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 79–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J.M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[Crossref]

N.V. Ovcharenko and T.V. Smirnova, “High refractive index and magneto-optical glasses in the systems TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 and TeO2-WO3-PbO,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291, 121–126 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

A.B. de Souza, M.T. de Araujo, M.V.D. Vermelho, F.C. Cassanjes, S.J.L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Er3+ ions in TeO2-based glass pumped at diode laser wavelength,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 94–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys.: Conden. Matter (1)

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M.A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernández-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5 glass,” J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 19, 086223–086234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S.Q. Man, E.Y.B. Pun, and P.S. Chung, “Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168, 369–373 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J.S. Wang, E.M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D.C. Yeh, R.R. Petrin, W.A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J.L. Adam, and M.J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R.A.H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook-Physical Properties and Data, (CRC Boca Raton, FL2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Room temperature absorption spectrum of the codoped sample with 0.5 wt% of Tm2O3 and 0.3 wt% of Er2O3 in TWP glass.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Room temperature emission spectra of Tm3+ and Er3+ in the codoped samples together with the emission spectrum of Er3+ ions in the single doped glass.
Fig.3.
Fig.3. (a) Lifetimes of the 4I13/24I15/2 emission (red) and Er3+-Tm3+ energy transfer efficiency (blue) as a function of Tm3+ concentration including zero. (b) Logarithmic plot of the fluorescence decays of the 4I13/24I15/2 emission as a function of Tm3+ concentration.
Fig 4.
Fig 4. Lifetimes of the 3H4 level of Tm3+ ions in single doped samples (red) and in the codoped samples (blue).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Upconversion emission spectra of Er3+ ions in the single doped and codoped samples.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Energy level diagram of Tm3+ and Er3+ ions. Solid lines represent the absorption and near infrared emissions and dashed lines the possible cross-relaxation process.

Equations (6)

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ηt=1τTmErτEr
3H43H6(Tm3+):4I15/24I9/2(Er3+)
3H43F4(Tm3+):4I15/24I13/2(Er3+)
4H11/24F15/2(Er3+):3H63H5(Tm3+)
4I13/24I15/2(Er3+):3H63F4(Tm3+)
4F43H6(Tm3+):4I11/24F9/2(Er3+)

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