Abstract

We demonstrate the suitability of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy as a non-destructive, contact-free tool to monitor the glass transition in polymers – a core feature of the amorphous phase. Below the glass transition temperature Tg, segmental motions along the polymer chain are frozen due to the lack of free volume between neighboring macromolecules. We show that this transition also reflects in the temperature dependence of the refractive index at terahertz frequencies. Two domains can be identified, which differ in their sensitivity to temperature changes. To verify the proposed approach, we determine the glass transition temperature Tg of semi-crystalline poly(oxymethylene) (POM) with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and validate the results by destructive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006 (1990).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  37. N. Nagai and R. Fukasawa, “Abnormal dispersion of polymer films in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 388(4-6), 479–482 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2009 (4)

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed THz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Wunderlich, “Thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of flexible molecules,” J. Polym. Sci. Part Polym. Phys. 46(24), 2647–2659 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2005 (3)

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Engin. Scie. 362, 351–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Nagai and R. Fukasawa, “Abnormal dispersion of polymer films in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 388(4-6), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Raptis and C. D. Diakoumakos, “Non-destructive method for monitoring glass transitions in thin photoresist films,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 829–834 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Hyun, D. E. Aspnes, and J. J. Cuomo, “Nondestructive measurement of a glass transition temperature at spin-cast semicrystalline polymer surfaces,” Macromolecules 34(8), 2395–2397 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Benecke, K. Schmitt, and M. Schadt, “In situ determination of glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films,” Liquid Crystals 21(4), 575–580 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

V. A. Bershtein and V. A. Ryzhov, “Far infrared spectroscopy of polymers,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 114, 42–121 (1994).

1992 (1)

G. Rotter and H. Ishida, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of the glass transition: curve resolving applied to polymers,” Macromolecules 25(8), 2170–2176 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

H. Suzuki, J. Grebowicz, and B. Wunderlich, “Glass Transition of Poly(oxymethylene),” British Polymer J. 17(1), 1–3 (1985).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

J. H. Gibbs and E. A. DiMarzio, “Nature of the glass transition and the glassy state,” J. Chem. Phys. 28(3), 373–383 (1958).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

J. Hyun, D. E. Aspnes, and J. J. Cuomo, “Nondestructive measurement of a glass transition temperature at spin-cast semicrystalline polymer surfaces,” Macromolecules 34(8), 2395–2397 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Bastian, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benecke, C.

C. Benecke, K. Schmitt, and M. Schadt, “In situ determination of glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films,” Liquid Crystals 21(4), 575–580 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bernazzani, P.

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bershtein, V. A.

V. A. Bershtein and V. A. Ryzhov, “Far infrared spectroscopy of polymers,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 114, 42–121 (1994).

Bock, H.

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brandhorst, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Christian, S.

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

Collins, J. H. P.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cuomo, J. J.

J. Hyun, D. E. Aspnes, and J. J. Cuomo, “Nondestructive measurement of a glass transition temperature at spin-cast semicrystalline polymer surfaces,” Macromolecules 34(8), 2395–2397 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dalnoki-Veress, K.

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diakoumakos, C. D.

I. Raptis and C. D. Diakoumakos, “Non-destructive method for monitoring glass transitions in thin photoresist films,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 829–834 (2002).
[Crossref]

DiMarzio, E. A.

J. H. Gibbs and E. A. DiMarzio, “Nature of the glass transition and the glassy state,” J. Chem. Phys. 28(3), 373–383 (1958).
[Crossref]

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dutcher, J. R.

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fattinger, C.

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, J. A.

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukasawa, R.

N. Nagai and R. Fukasawa, “Abnormal dispersion of polymer films in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 388(4-6), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, J. H.

J. H. Gibbs and E. A. DiMarzio, “Nature of the glass transition and the glassy state,” J. Chem. Phys. 28(3), 373–383 (1958).
[Crossref]

Gladden, L. F.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grebowicz, J.

H. Suzuki, J. Grebowicz, and B. Wunderlich, “Glass Transition of Poly(oxymethylene),” British Polymer J. 17(1), 1–3 (1985).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006 (1990).
[Crossref]

Grunenberg, J.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Güttler, B.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, P.

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hasek, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, O.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hochrein, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hyun, J.

J. Hyun, D. E. Aspnes, and J. J. Cuomo, “Nondestructive measurement of a glass transition temperature at spin-cast semicrystalline polymer surfaces,” Macromolecules 34(8), 2395–2397 (2001).
[Crossref]

Inoue, H.

Ishida, H.

G. Rotter and H. Ishida, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of the glass transition: curve resolving applied to polymers,” Macromolecules 25(8), 2170–2176 (1992).
[Crossref]

Isu, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jansen, C.

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeon, T.-I.

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jepsen, P.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Johns, M. L.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed THz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kawase, K.

Keiding, S.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed THz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, R. Wilk, and M. Koch, “Highly accurate optical material parameter determination with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4335–4350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretschmer, K.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kripesh, V.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krumbholz, N.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mantle, M. D.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mhaisalkar, S. G.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miane, J. L.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mikulics, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Modjesch, G.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mounaix, P.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, A. K.

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nagai, N.

N. Nagai and R. Fukasawa, “Abnormal dispersion of polymer films in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 388(4-6), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[Crossref]

Namdas, E. B.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nguema, E.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niemann, H.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obradovic, J.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

Priyadarshi, A.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pupeza, I.

Rajoo, R.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Raptis, I.

I. Raptis and C. D. Diakoumakos, “Non-destructive method for monitoring glass transitions in thin photoresist films,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 829–834 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rotter, G.

G. Rotter and H. Ishida, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of the glass transition: curve resolving applied to polymers,” Macromolecules 25(8), 2170–2176 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rutz, F.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryzhov, V. A.

V. A. Bershtein and V. A. Ryzhov, “Far infrared spectroscopy of polymers,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 114, 42–121 (1994).

Sanchez, R. F.

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

C. Benecke, K. Schmitt, and M. Schadt, “In situ determination of glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films,” Liquid Crystals 21(4), 575–580 (1996).
[Crossref]

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, K.

C. Benecke, K. Schmitt, and M. Schadt, “In situ determination of glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films,” Liquid Crystals 21(4), 575–580 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shimin, L.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

Stevens, J. R.

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, J. Grebowicz, and B. Wunderlich, “Glass Transition of Poly(oxymethylene),” British Polymer J. 17(1), 1–3 (1985).
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Engin. Scie. 362, 351–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Teramura, S.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tomita, N.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.

Vieweg, N.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vigneras, V.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vydra, J.

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wietzke, S.

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilk, R.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, R. Wilk, and M. Koch, “Highly accurate optical material parameter determination with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4335–4350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, E. H.

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Woodward, M.

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wunderlich, B.

B. Wunderlich, “Thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of flexible molecules,” J. Polym. Sci. Part Polym. Phys. 46(24), 2647–2659 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Suzuki, J. Grebowicz, and B. Wunderlich, “Glass Transition of Poly(oxymethylene),” British Polymer J. 17(1), 1–3 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12060–12067 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Y.

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

V. A. Bershtein and V. A. Ryzhov, “Far infrared spectroscopy of polymers,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 114, 42–121 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Bock, S. Christian, W. Knoll, and J. Vydra, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of nonlinear optical planar polymer waveguides by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3643–3645 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[Crossref]

T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, “Electrical characterization of conducting polypyrrole by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2452–2454 (2000).
[Crossref]

British Polymer J. (1)

H. Suzuki, J. Grebowicz, and B. Wunderlich, “Glass Transition of Poly(oxymethylene),” British Polymer J. 17(1), 1–3 (1985).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Nagai and R. Fukasawa, “Abnormal dispersion of polymer films in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 388(4-6), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, M. Koch, H. Niemann, B. Güttler, K. Brandhorst, and J. Grunenberg, “Probing noncovalent interactions in biomolecular crystals with terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(4), 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Polym. J. (1)

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

Q. Song, P. Han, X.-C. Zhang, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Temperature dependent terahertz spectroscopy of allopurinol,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 30, 461–467 (2009).

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Priyadarshi, L. Shimin, S. G. Mhaisalkar, R. Rajoo, E. H. Wong, V. Kripesh, and E. B. Namdas, “Characterization of optical properties of acrylate based adhesives exposed to different temperature conditions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 98(3), 950–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. H. Gibbs and E. A. DiMarzio, “Nature of the glass transition and the glassy state,” J. Chem. Phys. 28(3), 373–383 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. Part Polym. Phys. (1)

B. Wunderlich, “Thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of flexible molecules,” J. Polym. Sci. Part Polym. Phys. 46(24), 2647–2659 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liquid Crystals (1)

C. Benecke, K. Schmitt, and M. Schadt, “In situ determination of glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films,” Liquid Crystals 21(4), 575–580 (1996).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (2)

G. Rotter and H. Ishida, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of the glass transition: curve resolving applied to polymers,” Macromolecules 25(8), 2170–2176 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Hyun, D. E. Aspnes, and J. J. Cuomo, “Nondestructive measurement of a glass transition temperature at spin-cast semicrystalline polymer surfaces,” Macromolecules 34(8), 2395–2397 (2001).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

I. Raptis and C. D. Diakoumakos, “Non-destructive method for monitoring glass transitions in thin photoresist films,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 829–834 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed THz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Engin. Scie. (1)

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Engin. Scie. 362, 351–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, J. R. Stevens, and J. R. Dutcher, “Effect of free surfaces on the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2002–2005 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polym. Test. (1)

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 48(12), 3494–3503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 246–253 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Bernazzani, R. F. Sanchez, M. Woodward, and S. Williams, “Determination of the glass transition temperature of thin unsupported polystyrene films using interference fringes,” Thin Solid Films 516(21), 7947–7951 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

V. B. F. Mathot, ed., Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis of Polymers (Hanser, Munich, 1994).

J. M. G. Cowie, ed., Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials (Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, UK, 2001).

N. Naftaly, and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” in Proceedings of the IEEE95, 1658–1665 (2007).

D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing With Terahertz Radiation (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 THz TDS setup with a large-area photoconductor for emission and an electro-optic ZnTe crystal for detection. The cryostat containing the sample between two TPX® windows is transilluminated by the incident THz pulses, which are guided by off-axis parabolic mirrors.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz pulses (a) and corresponding Fourier spectra (b) of the reference and the sample scan for POM at T = 200 K.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 DSC curve of POM with Tg,DSC as the inflection point of the heat step. The inset shows the constitutional repeat unit of this polymer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency-dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of POM at different temperatures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) The temperature dependence of the THz refractive index reveals a fractional glass transition of POM at Tg,THz = 199 K as the intersection of two linear fits extrapolating the low- and the high-temperature regime. For comparison, the glass transition temperature interval, obtained from DSC measurements (cf. Figure 3), is denoted by the grey area. The values match perfectly. b) Phenomenological visualization of the glass transition.

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