Abstract

Advances in nanofabrication and nano-scale measurement methods now allow for fabrication of highly detailed nanometer-scale topographic features. As geometric features greatly impact the formation of an electromagnetic field in response to incident light, this in turn calls for the study of the effects of new features of nanostructures on their performance in applications such as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. This paper studies the effects of vertex features of a single nanostructure on its LSPR properties. A general relationship between the LSPR spectra and the vertex features of a nanoparticle is established. The results of electrodynamics calculations show that a delta-star with a relatively small vertex angle exhibits a bigger resonant wavelength than one with a large vertex angle. Moreover, the sensing performance initially increases, and then decreases as angular size of the vertices increases, with a turning point of 30°. It is also shown that for nanostars with different numbers of vertices, the resonant wavelength undergoes a blue shift and the sensing performance grows poorer as the number of vertices increases. A regular vertex angle of 30° displays the greatest figure of merit (FOM) value for LSPR applications, approximately 9.5 RIU−1.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (2)

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Ma, J. Yao, H. Yang, J. Y. Liu, F. Li, J. P. Hilton, and Q. Lin, “Effects of vertex truncation of polyhedral nanostructures on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14967–14976 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

B. Sepúlveda, Y. Alaverdyan, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and P. Johansson, “Shape effects in the localized surface plasmon resonance of single nanoholes in thin metal films,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5609–5616 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Huang, C. P. Yu, H. C. Chang, K. P. Chiu, H. Ming Chen, R. S. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmonic optical properties of a single gold nano-rod,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7132–7139 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, D. Ohnishi, K. Sasaki, and H. Misawa, “Inhibition of multipolar plasmon excitation in periodic chains of gold nanoblocks,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16527–16539 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(063118), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical Properties of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hkanson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Tomographic plasmon spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2309–2314 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmon resonant coupling in metallic nanowires,” Opt. Express 8(12), 655–663 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

R. Gans, “Form of ultramicroscopic particles of silver,” Ann. Phys. 47(10), 270–284 (1915).
[Crossref]

1912 (1)

R. Gans, “The form of ultramicroscopic gold particles,” Ann. Phys. 37(5), 881–900 (1912).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of colloidal metal solutions,” Annalen der Physik 25, 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Alaverdyan, Y.

Alegret, J.

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berciaud, S.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Browning, L. M.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H. C.

Chang, S.

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, K. P.

Choquet, D.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gans, R.

R. Gans, “Form of ultramicroscopic particles of silver,” Ann. Phys. 47(10), 270–284 (1915).
[Crossref]

R. Gans, “The form of ultramicroscopic gold particles,” Ann. Phys. 37(5), 881–900 (1912).
[Crossref]

Gray, S. K.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Groc, L.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gunnarsson, L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hafner, J. H.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical Properties of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Heine, M.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hicks, E. M.

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hilton, J. P.

Hkanson, U.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hkanson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Tomographic plasmon spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2309–2314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. J.

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johansson, P.

Juodkazis, S.

Kalkbrenner, T.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hkanson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Tomographic plasmon spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2309–2314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Käll, M.

B. Sepúlveda, Y. Alaverdyan, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and P. Johansson, “Shape effects in the localized surface plasmon resonance of single nanoholes in thin metal films,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5609–5616 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kasemo, B.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmon resonant coupling in metallic nanowires,” Opt. Express 8(12), 655–663 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lasne, D.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Liao, H.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical Properties of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Liu, J. Y.

Liu, R. S.

Lounis, B.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, W. Y.

Marks, L. D.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martin, O. J. F.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmon resonant coupling in metallic nanowires,” Opt. Express 8(12), 655–663 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

McFarland, A. D.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

McMahon, J. M.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of colloidal metal solutions,” Annalen der Physik 25, 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ming Chen, H.

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

Mizeikis, V.

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nallathamby, P. D.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical Properties of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, D.

Osgood, C. J.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, I. Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prikulis, J.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hkanson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Tomographic plasmon spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2309–2314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

Schatz, G. C.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sepúlveda, B.

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

Spears, K. G.

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, K. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(063118), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sung, J.

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

Ueno, K.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(063118), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. H. N.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Yao, J.

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. P.

Zhang, X.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(063118), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (2)

R. Gans, “The form of ultramicroscopic gold particles,” Ann. Phys. 37(5), 881–900 (1912).
[Crossref]

R. Gans, “Form of ultramicroscopic particles of silver,” Ann. Phys. 47(10), 270–284 (1915).
[Crossref]

Annalen der Physik (1)

G. Mie, “Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of colloidal metal solutions,” Annalen der Physik 25, 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(063118), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon resonant nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 341(1-2), 1–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Zhang, “The coupled electric field effects on localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoparticle arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (3)

J. M. McMahon, Y. Wang, L. J. Sherry, R. P. Van Duyne, L. D. Marks, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Correlating the structure, optical spectra, and electrodynamics of single silver nanocubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2731–2735 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: plasmon coupling in finite-size two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett (1)

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 0(0): A-E (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (5)

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical Properties of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 683–688 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hkanson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Tomographic plasmon spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2309–2314 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Other (5)

S. Zou, and G. C. Schatz, “Coupled plasmonic plasmon/photonic resonance effects in SERS,” in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering – Physics and Applications, Topics Appl. Phys., K. Kneipp, M. Moskovits, H. Kneipp, Eds. Berlin, Springer, 103, 67–87 (2006).

A. Taflove, and S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Arthech House, 2000).

FDTD lumerical online help: www.lumerical.com .

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids III, (Academic Press, 1998).

G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” in Handbook of vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Ed., New York, Wiley, 759–774 (2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The cross section in (a) X-Y direction and (b) X-Z direction of the simulated delta-star, and (c) three typical delta-stars with different vertex angles.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The plasmon resonance spectra for comparison of three different delta-stars. (b) The dipole resonance wavelength as a function of the vertex angle of the delta-stars.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sketch of (a) free electron distribution and (b) the excited E-field around the vertex of a nanostar
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Field enhancement of local E-fields of a delta-star with an angle of (a) 15° at 991nm and (b) 60° at 521nm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Extinction spectra of silver nanostructures with different numbers of vertices and (b) the relative peak shift as a function of the number of vertices for the nanostars.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The excited E-field distributions of (a) delta-star at 704 nm and (b) octagonal star at 618 nm and (c) the peak wavelength as a function of tip to tip distance d for nanostars.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Figure of merit distribution for nanostars with different numbers of vertices.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristic parameters of the delta-stars.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The widths of plasmon resonance spectra, calculated peak positions sensitivity to dielectric environment, and the determined overall sensing performance for delta-stars with ten different vertex angles.

Tables Icon

Table 3 the nanostar geometries and their characteristic parameters

Tables Icon

Table 4 The FWHM, RIS, and the determined FOM distributions of six different nanostars.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ e x t ( λ ) = 2 π 3 λ V ε d j ( 1 / P j ) ε m i ( λ ) ( ε m r ( λ ) + 1 P j P j ε d ) 2 + ε m i 2 ( λ )
σ e x t ( λ ) = P e x t ( λ ) P i n c ( λ ) S

Metrics