We present details of a microscope which incorporates an inexpensive, high numerical aperture Fresnel lens objective. The system aberrations are corrected by the use of an image hologram of the lens recorded using a point source of coherent illumination. This device gives high resolution, real time imaging while maintaining a large working distance. The same microscope can be used for micromachining and photolithography in situations where close proximity to the sample is impossible or undesirable.

©1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance

Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize
Appl. Opt. 37(10) 1849-1853 (1998)

Long-working-distance synthetic aperture Fresnel off-axis digital holography

Pan Feng, Xiao Wen, and Rong Lu
Opt. Express 17(7) 5473-5480 (2009)

High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy

Timothy R. Hillman, Thomas Gutzler, Sergey A. Alexandrov, and David D. Sampson
Opt. Express 17(10) 7873-7892 (2009)


  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Andersen and R. J. Knize, “Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1849–1853 (1998) and references contained within.
  2. H. Kogelnik and K. S. J. Pennington, “Holographic imaging through a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 273–274 (1968).
  3. M. Young, Optics and Lasers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).
  4. G. Andersen, J. Munch, and P. Veitch, “Compact, holographic correction of aberrated telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1427–1432 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. H. M. Chau, “Zone Plates Produced Optically,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1209–1211 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.

Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. a. Recording. A spatial filter (s.f.) illuminates the Fresnel lens objective to form the object beam, which interferes with a collimated reference beam to create the hologram. b. Reconstruction. If the set-up remains unchanged, the object beam will reconstruct the original reference beam. c. Imaging. An object replaces the spatial filter, and light from a point on the object reconstructs a diffracted beam which is focussed to form an unaberrated, magnified image of the object.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a. The focal spot of the reconstructed beam. b. On-axis reconstruction to better than diffraction limited quality. c & d. The corresponding focal spot and interferogram for reconstruction with the pinhole moved laterally by 5μm.
Fig 3.
Fig 3. a. Group 7, Element 6 of a 1951 USAF resolution test chart with bars and spaces 2.2μm wide. b. A sinusoidal grating with a spatial frequency of 1145 line pairs/mm. The two images were slightly contrast-enhanced for clarity and are not shown to the same magnification.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. a. Human blood cells with an average diameter of ~5 μm. b. A microchip with track widths of 0.7μm. The two images are not shown to the same magnification.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Scheme for viewing reflecting objects. An angled beamsplitter is added to the system on recording which, on replay, can be used to illuminate a reflecting object as shown above.