Abstract

In this paper, we propose a color transparent liquid crystal (LC) mode that can control the properties of the color gamut and transparency in a single panel. To achieve high transmittance in the transparent LC mode, a reactive mesogen (RM) with embedded color dichroic dyes was applied instead of a color filter. Basically, the LC mode applied a 3-terminal electrode structure to switch between the transparent LC mode and the conventional color LC mode. Depending on the direction of the applied voltage, we can operate both the color mode and the transparent mode in a single panel, and modulate the transparency and color purity of the cell through appropriate voltage control. In the experiments, we confirmed that the transmittance and the color gamut of the cell were 39.4% and 2% in the transparent LC mode and 14.9% and 34% in the color LC mode, respectively. Modulation of the color gamut and transparency between each LC mode are also demonstrated in the paper.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
  19. J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
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  21. C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Sonehara, “Photo-addressed liquid crystal SLM with twisted nematic ECB (TN-ECB) mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(7), L1231–L1234 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  27. S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, 1999), Chap. 4.3.1, p. 123.
  29. I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

B.-J. Mun, T. Y. Jin, G.-D. Lee, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, “Optical approach to improve the γ curve in a vertical-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 799–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, “Advanced wide viewing angle technology in liquid crystal display modes,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 657–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

M. Mitov, N. Dessaud, “Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials reflecting more that 50% of unpolarized incident light intensity,” Liq. Cryst. 34, 183–193 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wager, “Transparent electronics-Display applications,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 38(1), 1824–1825 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Sonehara, “Photo-addressed liquid crystal SLM with twisted nematic ECB (TN-ECB) mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(7), L1231–L1234 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Asaoka, Y.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chida, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chidichimo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, I. Y.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-C.

Choi, J.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-W.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chuang, C.-T.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, K.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cupelli, D.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Filpo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deguchi, K.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dessaud, N.

M. Mitov, N. Dessaud, “Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials reflecting more that 50% of unpolarized incident light intensity,” Liq. Cryst. 34, 183–193 (2007).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
[Crossref]

Formoso, P.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, S.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gwag, J. S.

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Her, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hess, L. D.

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ihara, I.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Itoh, Y.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

Iyama, Y.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-U.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ji, S. H.

S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, “Advanced wide viewing angle technology in liquid crystal display modes,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 657–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jin, T. Y.

Kang, D.

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, W. S.

Kang, W.-S.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kataoka, S.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. K.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-K.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Kang, J.-W. Moon, G.-D. Lee, S.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, H.-C. Choi, “Retardation free in-plane switching liquid crystal display with high speed and wide-view angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(2), 161–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, K. Sohn, Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Kim, “Electro-optical characteristics of a chiral hybrid in-plane switching liquid crystal mode for high brightness,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12220–12226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-M.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, W. I.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-K.

Koike, Y.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kubo, M.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-W.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.-H.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.-W.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-D.

B.-J. Mun, T. Y. Jin, G.-D. Lee, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, “Optical approach to improve the γ curve in a vertical-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 799–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Kang, J.-W. Moon, G.-D. Lee, S.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, H.-C. Choi, “Retardation free in-plane switching liquid crystal display with high speed and wide-view angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(2), 161–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, “Advanced wide viewing angle technology in liquid crystal display modes,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 657–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Kang, J.-W. Moon, G.-D. Lee, S.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, H.-C. Choi, “Retardation free in-plane switching liquid crystal display with high speed and wide-view angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(2), 161–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

B.-J. Mun, T. Y. Jin, G.-D. Lee, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, “Optical approach to improve the γ curve in a vertical-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 799–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

Lee, W.-R.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.-Y.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

B.-J. Mun, T. Y. Jin, G.-D. Lee, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, “Optical approach to improve the γ curve in a vertical-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 799–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-H.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-Y.

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.-H.

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lo, W.-B.

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.-K.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Macchione, M.

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Manfredi, S.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Masuda, Y.

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

Minoura, K.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mitov, M.

M. Mitov, N. Dessaud, “Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials reflecting more that 50% of unpolarized incident light intensity,” Liq. Cryst. 34, 183–193 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyata, A.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.-W.

Mun, B.-J.

Nicoletta, F. P.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohmuro, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakong, D.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sasabayashi, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Satoh, E.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Seki, H.

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shibasaki, M.

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shibata, Y.

T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sohn, K.

Son, J.

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sonehara, T.

T. Sonehara, “Photo-addressed liquid crystal SLM with twisted nematic ECB (TN-ECB) mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(7), L1231–L1234 (1990).
[Crossref]

Song, I. S.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sugiura, N.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takeda, A.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
[Crossref]

Vivacqua, M.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wager, J. F.

J. F. Wager, “Transparent electronics-Display applications,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 38(1), 1824–1825 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. S.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-N.

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeon, J.

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.-B.

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, I. H.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, L. D. Hess, “Optical rotatory power of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 842–844 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dig. Tech. Pap. (7)

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 29(1), 1077–1088 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Yeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, J. Park, D. Kang, “A new reflective-type transparent display using cholesteric liquid crystal,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 838–841 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wager, “Transparent electronics-Display applications,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 38(1), 1824–1825 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Liao, Y.-H. Lai, C.-T. Chuang, C.-N. Yeh, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Blur-free transparent LCD with hybrid transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 70–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Lo, K.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Liu, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, “Novel transparent LCD with tunable transparency,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 1159–1162 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Satoh, Y. Asaoka, K. Deguchi, I. Ihara, K. Minoura, S. Fujiwara, A. Miyata, Y. Itoh, Y. Iyama, M. Shibasaki, K. Kikuchi, M. Kubo, “60-inch highly transparent see-through active matrix display without polarizers,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1192–1195 (2010).
[Crossref]

B.-W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Yang, J. Oh, J. Choi, M. Hong, D. Sakong, K. Chung, S. Lee, C. Kim, “TFT-LCD with RGBW color system,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1212–1215 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

T. Uchida, S. Yamamoto, Y. Shibata, “A full-color matrix liquid-crystal display with color layers on the electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 30(5), 503–507 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (4)

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(8), 085501 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, G.-D. Lee, “Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing angle,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(24), 5143–5148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reative mesogen in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, “A viewing angle switching panel using guest-host liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 062401 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Sonehara, “Photo-addressed liquid crystal SLM with twisted nematic ECB (TN-ECB) mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(7), L1231–L1234 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Itoh, H. Seki, T. Uchida, Y. Masuda, “A double-layer electrically controlled birefringence liquid-crystal display with a wide-viewing-angle cone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(7B), L1296–L1299 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kim, I. Y. Cho, W. I. Kim, K.-U. Jeong, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J. Son, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Surface-modification on vertical alignment layer using UV-curable reactive mesogens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 032405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

M. Mitov, N. Dessaud, “Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials reflecting more that 50% of unpolarized incident light intensity,” Liq. Cryst. 34, 183–193 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, G. De Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, G. Chidichimo, “Photochromic reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 32(3), 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, “Advanced wide viewing angle technology in liquid crystal display modes,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 657–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. of the 18th International Display Research Conference/Asia Display (Society for Information Display, Seoul, Korea, 1998), pp. 383–386.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, 1999), Chap. 4.3.1, p. 123.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the cell and electrode structure for the transparent LC mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electro-optical principle of the three LC modes in the proposed transparent LC cell: (a) an initial dark mode, (b) a color LC mode and (c) a transparent LC mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram for the process steps of the transparent LC cell fabrication.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calculated optical transmittance of the proposed transparent LC mode in color mode, transparent mode and intermediate color mode: (a) blue area, (b) green area and (c) red area.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The calculated color properties of the proposed transparent LC cell in color mode, transparent mode and intermediate color mode.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Microscopic image for the R, G and B areas of the fabricated color dye layer (a) in a parallel state and (b) in a perpendicular state between the polarization axis and the absorption axis of the color dyes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured transmittance graph of the R, G and B areas in three modes as a function of the cell thickness.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Chromaticity diagrams (CIE 1931) of the proposed transparent LC cell (a) in the transparent LC mode and (b) in the color LC mode.

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