Abstract

To achieve green emission from the sidewall non-polar quantum wells (QWs) of a GaN nanorod (NR) light-emitting diode, regularly patterned InGaN/GaN QW NR arrays are grown under various growth conditions of indium supply rate, QW growth temperature, and QW growth time for comparing their emission wavelength variations of the top-face c-plane and sidewall m-plane QWs based on photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Although the variation trends of QW emission wavelength by changing those growth conditions in the NR structure are similar to those in the planar structure, the emission wavelength range of the QWs on an NR is significantly shorter than that in a planar structure under the same growth conditions. Under the growth conditions for a longer NR QW emission wavelength, the difference of emission wavelength between the top-face and sidewall QWs is smaller. Also, the variation range of the emission wavelength from the sidewall QWs over different heights on the sidewall becomes larger. On the other hand, strain state analysis based on transmission electron microscopy is undertaken to calibrate the average QW widths and average indium contents in the two groups of QW of an NR. The variation trends of the calibrated QW widths and indium contents are consistent with those of the CL emission wavelengths from various portions of NR QWs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Radial growth behavior and characteristics of m-plane In0.16Ga0.84N/GaN MQW nanowires by MOCVD,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1874–1881 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (8)

T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li and G. T. Wang, “Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1554–1558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. R. Creighton, G. T. Wang, W. G. Breiland, and M. E. Coltrin, “Nature of the parasitic chemistry during AlGaInN OMVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(2-3), 204–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babichev, A. V.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. P.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergbauer, W.

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bougerol, C.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breiland, W. G.

J. R. Creighton, G. T. Wang, W. G. Breiland, and M. E. Coltrin, “Nature of the parasitic chemistry during AlGaInN OMVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(2-3), 204–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brewster, M.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butzen, E.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. R.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. M.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

Chen, H. T.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. J.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. J.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cherns, D.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chèze, C.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chi, T. W.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuo, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J. I.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ciechonski, R.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. R. Creighton, G. T. Wang, W. G. Breiland, and M. E. Coltrin, “Nature of the parasitic chemistry during AlGaInN OMVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(2-3), 204–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Creighton, J. R.

J. R. Creighton, G. T. Wang, W. G. Breiland, and M. E. Coltrin, “Nature of the parasitic chemistry during AlGaInN OMVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(2-3), 204–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dang, D. S.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Luna Bugallo, A.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dieker, C.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durand, C.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Enatsu, Y.

S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
[Crossref]

Erenburg, M.

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Eymery, J.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. W.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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Funato, M.

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Geelhaar, L.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
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Gerthsen, D.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Gradecak, S.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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Griffiths, I.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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Guo, W.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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Gwo, S.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
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Haab, A.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
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Hahn, E.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hardtdegen, H.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
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Heilmann, M.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hersee, S. D.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuken, M.

D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Hsiao, C. L.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
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Hsieh, C.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
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Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
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Hsu, C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M. C.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Hsu, T. C.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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Huang, C. F.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
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Huang, J. J.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. K.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
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Hung, L.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. S.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacopin, G.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahn, U.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Jenichen, B.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jönen, H.

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
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Jullien, F. H.

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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
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G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Lee, C. M.

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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
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Lee, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
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Li, Q.

J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
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S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
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X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
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Li, S. F.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Li, Y.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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Li, Y. J.

J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
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Liao, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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Liao, C. H.

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
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C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012), doi:.
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Lieber, C. M.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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Lim, S. K.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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Lin, C. H.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Lin, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
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Lin, Y. L.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
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Lin, Y. T.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
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Lu, P.

J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, K. J.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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Mandl, M.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
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Merzsch, S.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Miyake, H.

S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
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X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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Nagao, S.

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Navamathavan, R.

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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Radial growth behavior and characteristics of m-plane In0.16Ga0.84N/GaN MQW nanowires by MOCVD,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1874–1881 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neubauer, B.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Neumann, R.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Nutt, S. R.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
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T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
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S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
[Crossref]

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W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Radial growth behavior and characteristics of m-plane In0.16Ga0.84N/GaN MQW nanowires by MOCVD,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1874–1881 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W. I.

T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
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D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Radial growth behavior and characteristics of m-plane In0.16Ga0.84N/GaN MQW nanowires by MOCVD,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1874–1881 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riechert, H.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
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G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
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R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Rosenauer, A.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Salomon, D.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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Sam-Giao, D.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
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Sarkissian, R.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
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Schon, O.

D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Schowalter, M.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
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J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
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X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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Stephan, T.

D. Gerthsen, B. Neubauer, A. Rosenauer, T. Stephan, H. Kalt, O. Schon, and M. Heuken, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Stewart, L. S.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
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Strassburg, M.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
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Straßburg, M.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Strassburg, M.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Su, C. Y.

Suleiman, M. A.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

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S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
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A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Wehmann, H.-H.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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S. Li, X. Wang, S. Fündling, M. Erenburg, J. Ledig, J. Wei, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, H. Riechert, H. Jönen, and A. Hangleiter, “Nitrogen-polar core-shell GaN light-emitting diodes grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 032103 (2012).
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Wierer, J. J.

J. R. Riley, S. Padalkar, Q. Li, P. Lu, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Wierer, G. T. Wang, and L. J. Lauhon, “Three-dimensional mapping of quantum wells in a GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diode array,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4317–4325 (2013).
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Yang, C. C.

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H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Yao, L. J.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
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Yao, Y. F.

Yeh, J. H.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Zagonel, L. F.

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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Zhang, H.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Express (2)

G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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G. Jacopin, A. De Luna Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Julien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

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X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
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A. De Luna Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
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H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
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J. R. Chang, S. P. Chang, Y. J. Li, Y. J. Cheng, K. P. Sou, J. K. Huang, H. C. Kuo, and C. Y. Chang, “Fabrication and luminescent properties of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261103 (2012).
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Cryst. Growth Des. (3)

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
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X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fündling, J. Wei, M. Erenburg, H. H. Wehmann, A. Waag, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “Polarity control in 3D GaN structures grown by selective area MOVPE,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(5), 2552–2556 (2012).
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X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core-shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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CrystEngComm (1)

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K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Okada, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Enatsu, and S. Nagao, “Selective-area growth of GaN on non- and semi-polar bulk GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5S1), 05FL04 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (13)

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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Nanotechnology (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  8, 2296–2301 (2011).

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) and (b) [(c) and (d)]: Plan-view (cross-sectional) SEM images of sample B with a small and a large scale, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): A cross-sectional TEM image of an NR in sample B. (b): A HAADF image of a neighboring NR in sample B. The magnified TEM images of the circled portions at the top-face QWs, the sidewall QWs near the top, near the middle height, and near the bottom of the NR in part (a) are shown in parts (c)-(f), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(c) [(d)-(f)]: Plan-view (Cross-sectional) SEM image, the panchromatic CL image, and the CL image at 428 (406) nm, respectively, at the same location of the NR array in sample B.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CL spectra measured under different conditions of sample B, including the large-scale plan-view (PV) and cross-sectional (CS) measurements, the plan-view local measurement at the NR center (PV-c), the cross-sectional local measurement for the top-face QWs (CS-top), and the cross-sectional local measurements for the sidewall QWs near the top (SW-t), near the middle height (SW-m), and near the bottom (SW-b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-(h): Cross-sectional CL images at individual spectral peaks at 406, 414, 422, 416, 434, 450, 490, and 500 nm for samples B-I, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized PL spectra of the nine samples.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variations of PL and CL spectral peak wavelengths under various measurement conditions with TMIn flow rate (including the data of samples B-E with the QW growth temperatures fixed at 700 °C and growth times fixed at 50 sec). The curves of CS-top and CS correspond to the emissions from the top-face QWs and the overall emission from the sidewall QWs, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variations of PL and CL spectral peak wavelengths under various measurement conditions with QW growth temperature (including the data of samples D, F, and G with the TMIn flow rates fixed at 360 sccm and QW growth times fixed at 50 sec). The curves of CS-top and CS correspond to the emissions from the top-face QWs and the overall emission from the sidewall QWs, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations of PL and CL spectral peak wavelengths under various measurement conditions with QW growth time (including the data of samples G, H, and I with the TMIn flow rates fixed at 360 sccm and QW growth temperatures fixed at 670 °C). The curves of CS-top and CS correspond to the emissions from the top-face QWs and the overall emission from the sidewall QWs, respectively.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a): Typical two-beam TEM image of a section of a top-face QW in sample G. (b): SSA image corresponding to the TEM image in part (a). (c): A typical cross-well indium composition profile along the vertical (white) line shown in part (b).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a): Typical two-beam TEM image of a section of a sidewall QW near the middle height in sample G. (b): SSA image corresponding to the TEM image in part (a). (c): A typical cross-well indium composition profile along the vertical (white) line shown in part (b).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Average QW widths (the left ordinate) and average indium contents (the right ordinate) of the top-face (TF) QWs, the sidewall QWs near the top (SW-t), near the middle height (SW-m), and near the bottom (SW-b) as functions of TMIn flow rate for samples B-E when the QW growth temperature and time are fixed at 700 °C and 50 sec, respectively.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Average QW widths (the left ordinate) and average indium contents (the right ordinate) of the top-face (TF) QWs, the sidewall QWs near the top (SW-t), near the middle height (SW-m), and near the bottom (SW-b) as functions of QW growth temperature for samples D, F, and G when the TMIn flow rate and QW growth time are fixed at 360 sccm and 50 sec, respectively.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Average QW widths (the left ordinate) and average indium contents (the right ordinate) of the top-face (TF) QWs, the sidewall QWs near the top (SW-t), near the middle height (SW-m), and near the bottom (SW-b) as functions of QW growth time for samples G-I when the TMIn flow rate and QW growth temperature are fixed at 360 sccm and 670 °C, respectively.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Dependencies of parameter s (the left ordinate) and parameter t (the right ordinate) on d/a with three h/a values at 2.35, 3.53, and 4.7 for t. In the current experimental study, d/a is ~1.65, as marked by the vertical dashed line. The operation points under the current experimental conditions are marked with the two “x” symbols.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Growth conditions and the peak wavelengths (λ) of the PL and CL spectra of the nine samples under various measurement conditions. Sample A has a planar QW structure. Samples B-I have NR structures.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average QW widths and average indium contents of the top-face QWs, the sidewall QWs at the top, middle height, and bottom of various samples. The numbers before and after a slash correspond the average QW width (in nm) and average indium content (in %), respectively.

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