Abstract

Lorentz reciprocity is a direct consequence of Maxwell equations governing the propagation of light in passive linear media with symmetric permittivity and permeability tensors. Here, we demonstrate the first active optical isolator and circulator implemented in a linear and reciprocal material platform using commercial Mach-Zehnder modulators. In a proof-of-principle experiment based on single-mode polarization-maintaining fibers, we achieve more than 12.5 dB isolation over an unprecedented 8.7 THz bandwidth at telecommunication wavelengths, with only 9.1 dB total insertion loss. Our architecture provides a practical answer to the challenge of non-reciprocal light routing in photonic integrated circuits.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators

Christophe Galland, Ran Ding, Nicholas C. Harris, Tom Baehr-Jones, and Michael Hochberg
Opt. Express 21(12) 14500-14511 (2013)

Travelling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulators functioning as optical isolators

Po Dong
Opt. Express 23(8) 10498-10505 (2015)

Monolithic integration of broadband optical isolators for polarization-diverse silicon photonics

Yan Zhang, Qingyang Du, Chuangtang Wang, Takian Fakhrul, Shuyuan Liu, Longjiang Deng, Duanni Huang, Paolo Pintus, John Bowers, Caroline A. Ross, Juejun Hu, and Lei Bi
Optica 6(4) 473-478 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. R. Doerr, N. Dupuis, and L. Zhang, “Optical isolator using two tandem phase modulators,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4293–4295 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, and D. Vermeulen, “Silicon photonics broadband modulation-based isolator,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4493–4498 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor Waveguide Isolators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 291–301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (John Wiley, 1991).
  18. D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Adhesively bonded Ce:YIG/SOI integrated optical circulator,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 965–967 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-Responsive Phase Shifters for Depletion Mode Silicon Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Shintaku, “Integrated Optical Isolator Based on Efficient Nonreciprocal Radiation Mode Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and Characterization of an InGaAsp/InP Active Waveguide Optical Isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE Mode Nonreciprocal Attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 38–43 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (10)

C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Adhesively bonded Ce:YIG/SOI integrated optical circulator,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 965–967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-Responsive Phase Shifters for Depletion Mode Silicon Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor Waveguide Isolators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 291–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and Characterization of an InGaAsp/InP Active Waveguide Optical Isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE Mode Nonreciprocal Attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 38–43 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Shintaku, “Integrated Optical Isolator Based on Efficient Nonreciprocal Radiation Mode Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-Responsive Phase Shifters for Depletion Mode Silicon Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Adhesively bonded Ce:YIG/SOI integrated optical circulator,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 965–967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkmeyer, E.

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
[Crossref]

Chee, E. K.

Chen, L.

Chihara, H.

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dagens, B.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Decobert, J.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, and D. Vermeulen, “Silicon photonics broadband modulation-based isolator,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4493–4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, N. Dupuis, and L. Zhang, “Optical isolator using two tandem phase modulators,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4293–4295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunham, S.

Dupuis, N.

Eggleton, B. J.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ejzak, G. A.

Fan, L.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fang, K.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galland, C.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Gouezigou, O. L.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Grund, D. W.

Guo, X.

Harris, N. C.

Hochberg, M.

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-Responsive Phase Shifters for Depletion Mode Silicon Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, I.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, I. W.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keyvaninia, S.

Keyvavinia, S.

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krause, M.

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
[Crossref]

Kromer, H.

Kuo, P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lagae, L.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lira, H.

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-Responsive Phase Shifters for Depletion Mode Silicon Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lo, P. G.

Luo, X.

Ma, Y.

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Magill, P.

Make, D.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizumoto, T.

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Adhesively bonded Ce:YIG/SOI integrated optical circulator,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 965–967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Moeyersoon, B.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Muller, J.

M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Naito, Y.

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

Nishimura, S.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

Onbasli, M. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Padmaraju, K.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parys, W. V.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pintus, P.

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prather, D.

Qi, M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

Shintaku, T.

T. Shintaku, “Integrated Optical Isolator Based on Efficient Nonreciprocal Radiation Mode Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shoji, Y.

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streshinsky, M.

Takanishi, Y.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

Tokui, N.

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Van Roy, W.

Vanheertum, R.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, D.

Wang, J.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wust, F.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yang, Y.

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Yu, Z.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaman, T. R.

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Shintaku, “Integrated Optical Isolator Based on Efficient Nonreciprocal Radiation Mode Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse Magnetic Mode Nonreciprocal Propagation in an Amplifying AlGaInAs/InP Optical Waveguide Isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, and Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26(3), 199–200 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-Tunable Optical Diode Based on Photonic Bandgap Liquid-Crystal Heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, and D. Vermeulen, “Silicon photonics broadband modulation-based isolator,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4493–4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Galland, R. Ding, N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14500–14511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8767, 87670G (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on “Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit”,” Science 335(6064), 38 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
[Crossref]

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (John Wiley, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics and working principle of the optical isolator/circulator system. (a), Block diagram of our non-reciprocal system, consisting of two Mach-Zehnder modulators (M1 and M2) in series, separated by two fiber-based optical delay lines. The path for forward propagation of light is shown in blue, from port p1 to port p4. In contrast, the reverse flow of light is redirected in a nonreciprocal manner from port p4 to p2, as shown by the red arrows. (b), Schematic of time-domain square-wave signals used to drive the two modulators, in units of Vπ. The time axis is in units of the period T of the drive signals. (c), Computed optical phase modulation experienced by the forward and (d) reverse propagating modes, evidencing how our scheme breaks Lorentz reciprocity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the setup used in the experiments: red line: electrical signal path, blue line: optical path. (a) Forward transmission measurement (b) Reverse transmission measurement.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental characterization of the isolator/circulator system. The laser wavelength was swept from 1470 nm to 1570 nm while measuring the transmission through the forward path from p1 to p4 (black line), the reverse path from p4 to p1 (grey line), and the circulated path from p4 to p2 (red line). The extinction ratio of the isolator (the difference between the black and grey curves) is plotted in the inset. It reaches close to 20 dB at some wavelengths and is over 12.5 dB over the 1500 – 1568 nm window.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time domain characterization of the system transmission (Forward configuration is shown. Red line: electrical signal path. Blue line: optical path).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the data transmission fidelity measurement setup. Red line: electrical signal path. Blue line: optical path.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Time-domain characterization of the circulator. (a), For a CW input light, transmission from p1 to p4, forward path (black line), as well as transmission from p4->p1 (isolated path, grey line) and p4->p2 (circulated path, red line). In the inset the data is plotted on a linear, normalized vertical scale, to show the absolute magnitude of the residual intensity modulations on the transmitted light. (b), Pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) pattern measured on a sampling scope before and (c) after transmission through the circulator system (path p1 to p4).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulation of the driving voltage of modulators in the isolator/circulator system.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measurement results of the driving voltage of modulators in the isolator/circulator system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulation of the isolator/circulator system’s time domain transmission function in forward and reverse direction.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of time-modulated optical isolator systems that achieve broadband isolation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of recent integrated optical isolators’ working principle, special features and performance.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of simulation shown in Fig. 9

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( p 1 p 2 ), ( p 3 p 4 ).
M DC = 1 2 ( 1 i i 1 ).
M 1 =( e i ϕ 1 (t) 0 0 1 ), M 2 =( e i ϕ 2 (t) 0 0 1 ).
M Delay =( i 0 0 i ).
M sysfwd = M DC × M 2 × M DC × M Delay × M DC × M 1 × M DC .
M sysfwd =( 1 i i 1 )( e i ϕ 2 (t+ T 4 ) 0 0 1 )( 1 i i 1 )( i 0 0 i )( 1 i i 1 )( e i ϕ 1 (t) 0 0 1 )( 1 i i 1 ) .
M sysfwd = 1 2 ( i[ e i ϕ 1 (t) + e i ϕ 2 (t+ T 4 ) ] e i ϕ 1 (t) e i ϕ 2 (t+ T 4 ) e i ϕ 1 (t) + e i ϕ 2 (t+ T 4 ) i[ e i ϕ 1 (t) + e i ϕ 2 (t+ T 4 ) ] ) .
( p 1 p 2 )=( 1 0 ).
( p 3 p 4 )= M sysfwd ( p 1 p 2 )={ [ 0 1 ] t[0, T/4),(3T/4, T] [ 0 1 ] t[T/4, 3T/4] .
M sysrev = M DC × M 1 × M DC × M Delay × M DC × M 2 × M DC .
M sysrev = 1 2 ( i[ e i ϕ 2 (t) + e i ϕ 1 (t+ T 4 ) ] e i ϕ 2 (t) e i ϕ 1 (t+ T 4 ) e i ϕ 2 (t) + e i ϕ 1 (t+ T 4 ) i[ e i ϕ 2 (t) + e i ϕ 1 (t+ T 4 ) ] ) .
( p 3 p 4 )=( 0 1 ).
( p 1 p 2 )= M sysrev ( p 3 p 4 )={ [ 0 i ] t[0, T/2) [ 0 i ] t[T/2, T] .
M DC (r,k)= 10 k/20 ( 1r i r i r 1r ) .
M 1 (t, k 1 )=( 10 k 1 /20 e i ϕ 1 (t) 0 0 10 k 1 /20 ), M 2 (t, k 2 )=( 10 k 2 /20 e i ϕ 2 (t) 0 0 10 k 2 /20 ).
M Delay ( k top , k bot )=( 10 k top /20 e i ϕ top 0 0 10 k bot /20 e i ϕ bot ) .
A 1 e A 2 t T sin(2π f 1 t) .
V pp 2 ( 1+cos[ π f sa β (t 1β 2 ) ] ) V pp 2 .

Metrics