Abstract

Combining the high sensitivity properties of surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing with a tunable external cavity laser, we demonstrate a plasmonic external cavity laser (ECL) for high resolution refractometric sensing. The plasmonic ECL utilizes a plasmonic crystal with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) as the wavelength-selective element, and achieves single mode lasing at the transmission peak of the EOT resonance. The plasmonic ECL refractometric sensor maintains the high sensitivity of a plasmonic crystal sensor, while simultaneously providing a narrow spectral linewidth through lasing emission, resulting in a record high figure of merit for refractometric sensing with an active or passive optical resonator. We demonstrate single-mode and continuous-wave operation of the electrically-pumped laser system, and show the ability to measure refractive index changes with a 3σ detection limit of 1.79 × 10−6 RIU. The demonstrated approach is a promising path towards label-free optical biosensing with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for challenging applications in small molecule drug discovery and pathogen sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, X. Yu, and Q. Yu, “Tuning multiple Fano and plasmon resonances in rectangle grid quasi-3D plasmonic-photonic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053117 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1319–1321 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aksu, S.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Bhargava, R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bond, T. C.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braun, P. V.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cattoni, A.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetin, A. E.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanda, D.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

Chang, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, A.

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Citrin, D. S.

Collin, S.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, J. H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. T.

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

Decanini, D.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eden, J. G.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

Flood, T. A.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganesh, N.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gartia, M. R.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ge, C.

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ghenuche, P.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, S.

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haghiri-Gosnet, A.-M.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heo, C.-J.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hergenrother, P. J.

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, A.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hua, F.

Huang, M.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugh, B.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Im, H.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

Irfan, U.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. G.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, R.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, C.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. W.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoshsima, M.

Kim, S.-H.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kita, S.

Kulsharova, G.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-W.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liedberg, B.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lindquist, N. C.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löfås, S.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lui, E.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lundström, I.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mack, N.

Mack, N. H.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malmqvist, M.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Malyarchuk, V.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. Mack, V. Velasquez, J. White, R. Nuzzo, and J. Rogers, “High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5669–5675 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, L.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mihi, A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mousavi, S. H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagpal, P.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nozaki, K.

Nuzzo, R.

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-H.

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oveys, H.

Ozdemir, S. K.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peh, J.

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelouard, J.-L.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, J.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Persson, B.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pokhriyal, A.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J.

Rogers, J. A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rönnberg, I.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Roos, H.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G.

Schulmerich, M.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, P.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shigeta, K.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, J. W.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenberg, E.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teraoka, I.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Truong, T.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-Y.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbaniczky, C.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

Velasquez, V.

Vollmer, F.

Wagner, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, X. Yu, and Q. Yu, “Tuning multiple Fano and plasmon resonances in rectangle grid quasi-3D plasmonic-photonic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

White, J.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, G.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-M.

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yanik, M. F.

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, H.

Yu, Q.

D. Wang, X. Yu, and Q. Yu, “Tuning multiple Fano and plasmon resonances in rectangle grid quasi-3D plasmonic-photonic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

D. Wang, X. Yu, and Q. Yu, “Tuning multiple Fano and plasmon resonances in rectangle grid quasi-3D plasmonic-photonic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

Zhou, Z.-K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, D. J. Norris, and S.-H. Oh, “Linewidth-optimized extraordinary optical transmission in water with template-stripped metallic nanohole arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(21), 4439–4446 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, A. Pokhriyal, S. Seo, G. Kulsharova, B. T. Cunningham, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Colorimetric plasmon resonance imaging using nano lycurgus cup arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 68–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Y. Lee, S.-H. Kim, S. G. Jang, C.-J. Heo, J. W. Shim, and S.-M. Yang, “High-fidelity optofluidic on-chip sensors using well-defined gold nanowell crystals,” Anal. Chem. 83(23), 9174–9180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, X. Yu, and Q. Yu, “Tuning multiple Fano and plasmon resonances in rectangle grid quasi-3D plasmonic-photonic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053117 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Ge, M. Lu, Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “A self-referencing biosensor based upon a dual-mode external cavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 213701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

Y. Tan, A. Chu, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor noise reduction,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1972–1978 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, L. Meng, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Zhang, J. Peh, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(16), 5840–5843 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (2)

T.-Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H.-Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3596–3602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13(7), 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuator B-Chem. (2)

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Rönnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundström, “Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 5(1–4), 79–84 (1991).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the plasmonic crystal. (b) Optical image of the fabricated plasmonic crystal with a size of 8 mm × 8mm. (c) and (d) Top- and side-view of scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated plasmonic crystal surfaces.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental transmission spectra as a function of incident angle θ for white, p-polarized illumination along the Γ-X direction of the plasmonic crystal (a) with air as the background media and launch angle varied from θ = 0° to 50° and (b) with water as the background media and launch angle varied from θ = 0° to 30°. Calculated dispersion curves of SPP–BW mode (solid lines) and Rayleigh anomaly (dashed lines) are superimposed. Inset: Schemes of the square lattice structure in reciprocal space. (c) Measured (red dashed curve) and simulated (blue solid curve) transmission spectra for the plasmonic crystal with launch angle θ = 16°. Inset (d) Simulated electric field intensity distribution for the peak at λ = 850 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic drawing of the plasmonic external cavity laser detection instrument. (b) The light v.s. current (L.I.) curve associated with the plasmonic external cavity laser. Overlaid plasmonic crystal transmission spectra and plasmonic ECL laser emission spectra (c) with launch angle θ = 42° in air and (d) with launch angle θ = 18° in water.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured lasing spectra of the plasmonic ECL with the plasmonic crystal immersed in DMSO-water mixture solutions with varying compositions at the fixed launch angle of θ = 17°. (b) Bulk sensitivity characterization. Laser emission wavelength shifts as the sensor was exposed to liquid media with different refractive index. A linear fit to the experimentally obtained data reveals a bulk sensitivity of 547 nm/RIU. Inset: Measured response during a refractometric experiment for the plasmonic ECL. The refractive index change was 7.5 × 10−5 via the addition of DMSO.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated transmission spectrum for the structure composed of only the bottom nanodisk array. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distributions for the resonance transmission dip.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated transmission spectrum for the structure composed of only the top metal film with nanohole array. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distributions for the resonance transmission peak.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated transmission spectrum for the quasi 3D plasmonic crystal composed of top nanohole array and bottom nanodisk array. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distributions for the resonance transmission peak.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Refractive Index Sensitivities and FOM Values of Plasmonic Biosensors/Refractometric Sensors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Refractive Index Sensitivity and Lasing Mechanism for Various Laser Biosensors

Equations (1)

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| k || +i G x +i G y |= ω c ε d ε m ε d + ε m

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