Abstract

In this paper, a new transmit alternate laser selection (TALS) scheme for FSO communication systems using intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels is presented when limited time diversity is available in the turbulent channel. Assuming channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and receiver and a time diversity order (TDO) limited, we propose the transmit diversity technique based on the rotating selection of TDO out of the available L lasers corresponding to the optical paths with greater values of scintillation. Implementing repetition coding with blocks of TDO information bits, each information bit will be retransmitted TDO times using the TDO largest order statistics in an alternating way. Closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions are derived when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Fully exploiting the potential time-diversity TDO available in the turbulent channel, a significant diversity gain is achieved, providing a diversity order of (2L + 1 − TDO)TDO/2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Sci. World J. 2014, 213834 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. E. Nistazakis and G. S. Tombras, “On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2088–2094 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Asymptotic error-rate analysis of FSO links using transmit laser selection over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2096–2109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dhungana and C. Tellambura, “New simple approximations for error probability and outage in fading,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(11), 1760–1763 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

C. Abou-Rjeily, “On the optimality of the selection transmit diversity for MIMO-FSO links with feedback,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(6), 641–643 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Samimi, “Performance analysis of free-space optical links with transmit laser selection diversity over strong turbulence channels,” IET Commun. 5(8), 1039–1043 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13480–13496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

2009 (6)

H. E. Nistazakis, E. A. Karagianni, A. D. Tsigopoulos, M. E. Fafalios, and G. S. Tombras, “Average capacity of optical wireless communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 974–979 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4440–4445 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, and R. K. Mallik, “Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(11), 3415–3424 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, and S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express 17(2), 872–887 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Denic, J. Anguita, B. Vasic, and M. Neifeld, “LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 478–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

V. W. S. Chan, “Free-space optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4750–4762 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Anguita, I. Djordjevic, M. Neifeld, and B. Vasic, “Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 586–601 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, “Alamouti-type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Love, “On the probability of error of antenna-subset selection with space-time block codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(11), 1799–1803 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lee and V. W. S. Chan, “Part 1: optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22(9), 1896–1906 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, “New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840–845 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, “MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 50(10), 2580–2588 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abou-Rjeily, C.

C. Abou-Rjeily, “On the optimality of the selection transmit diversity for MIMO-FSO links with feedback,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(6), 641–643 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, V.

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al-Habash, M. A.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M.-S.

M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communications Over Fading Channels, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 2005).

Andrews, L.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press2001).
[Crossref]

Andrews, L. C.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Anguita, J.

Bayaki, E.

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, and R. K. Mallik, “Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(11), 3415–3424 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bourennane, S.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Vazquez, B.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Vazquez, C.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Vázquez, B.

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Sci. World J. 2014, 213834 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Asymptotic error-rate analysis of FSO links using transmit laser selection over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2096–2109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13480–13496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Space-time trellis coding with transmit laser selection for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5356–5366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Average capacity of FSO links with transmit laser selection using non-uniform OOK signaling over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20445–20454 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Rate-adaptive FSO links over atmospheric turbulence channels by jointly using repetition coding and silence periods,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25422–25440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castillo-Vázquez, C.

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Sci. World J. 2014, 213834 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Asymptotic error-rate analysis of FSO links using transmit laser selection over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2096–2109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13480–13496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Rate-adaptive FSO links over atmospheric turbulence channels by jointly using repetition coding and silence periods,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25422–25440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Average capacity of FSO links with transmit laser selection using non-uniform OOK signaling over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20445–20454 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Space-time trellis coding with transmit laser selection for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5356–5366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caussé, P.

Chan, V. W. S.

V. W. S. Chan, “Free-space optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4750–4762 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lee and V. W. S. Chan, “Part 1: optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22(9), 1896–1906 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Chiani, M.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, “New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840–845 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dang, A.

Dardari, D.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, “New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840–845 (2003).
[Crossref]

David, H. A.

H. A. David and H. N. Nagaraja, Order Statistics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley, 2003).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

Denic, S.

Dhungana, Y.

Y. Dhungana and C. Tellambura, “New simple approximations for error probability and outage in fading,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(11), 1760–1763 (2012).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, I.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Fafalios, M. E.

Farid, A. A.

Gappmair, W.

W. Gappmair, S. Hranilovic, and E. Leitgeb, “Performance of PPM on terrestrial FSO links with turbulence and pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(5), 468–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Zambrana, A.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

García-Zambrana, A.

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Sci. World J. 2014, 213834 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Asymptotic error-rate analysis of FSO links using transmit laser selection over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2096–2109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13480–13496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Space-time trellis coding with transmit laser selection for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5356–5366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Average capacity of FSO links with transmit laser selection using non-uniform OOK signaling over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20445–20454 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Rate-adaptive FSO links over atmospheric turbulence channels by jointly using repetition coding and silence periods,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25422–25440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gore, D. A.

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, “MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 50(10), 2580–2588 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gradshteyn, I. S.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Guo, H.

Haas, H.

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Hiniesta-Gomez, A.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hopen, C.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press2001).
[Crossref]

Hranilovic, S.

W. Gappmair, S. Hranilovic, and E. Leitgeb, “Performance of PPM on terrestrial FSO links with turbulence and pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(5), 468–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Farid and S. Hranilovic, “Outage capacity optimization for free-space optical links with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(7), 1702–1710 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karagianni, E. A.

Karagiannidis, G. K.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4440–4445 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, A.

Kim, I. I.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. J. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” in Proc. SPIE 4214, Optical Wireless Communications III (2001).

Korevaar, E. J.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. J. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” in Proc. SPIE 4214, Optical Wireless Communications III (2001).

Kwok, C. H.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, E. J.

E. J. Lee and V. W. S. Chan, “Part 1: optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22(9), 1896–1906 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, E.

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Gappmair, S. Hranilovic, and E. Leitgeb, “Performance of PPM on terrestrial FSO links with turbulence and pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(5), 468–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leveque, J. H.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Love, D.

D. Love, “On the probability of error of antenna-subset selection with space-time block codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(11), 1799–1803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mallik, R. K.

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, and R. K. Mallik, “Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(11), 3415–3424 (2009).
[Crossref]

McArthur, B.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. J. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” in Proc. SPIE 4214, Optical Wireless Communications III (2001).

Milner, S. D.

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagaraja, H. N.

H. A. David and H. N. Nagaraja, Order Statistics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley, 2003).
[Crossref]

Neifeld, M.

Nistazakis, H. E.

H. E. Nistazakis and G. S. Tombras, “On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2088–2094 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. E. Nistazakis, E. A. Karagianni, A. D. Tsigopoulos, M. E. Fafalios, and G. S. Tombras, “Average capacity of optical wireless communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 974–979 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paulraj, A. J.

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, “MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 50(10), 2580–2588 (2002).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press2001).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R. L.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Popoola, W.

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

Ryzhik, I. M.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Samimi, H.

H. Samimi, “Performance analysis of free-space optical links with transmit laser selection diversity over strong turbulence channels,” IET Commun. 5(8), 1039–1043 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sandalidis, H. G.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4440–4445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schober, R.

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, and R. K. Mallik, “Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(11), 3415–3424 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simon, M.

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, “Alamouti-type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

Simon, M. K.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, “New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840–845 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communications Over Fading Channels, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 2005).

Smolyaninov, I. I.

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

Tellambura, C.

Y. Dhungana and C. Tellambura, “New simple approximations for error probability and outage in fading,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(11), 1760–1763 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tombras, G. S.

H. E. Nistazakis and G. S. Tombras, “On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2088–2094 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. E. Nistazakis, E. A. Karagianni, A. D. Tsigopoulos, M. E. Fafalios, and G. S. Tombras, “Average capacity of optical wireless communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 974–979 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trisno, S.

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsiftsis, T. A.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Optical wireless communications with heterodyne detection over turbulence channels with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4440–4445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsigopoulos, A. D.

Uysal, M.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vasic, B.

Vilnrotter, V.

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, “Alamouti-type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, N.

White, I. H.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilson, S. G.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

Yu, M.

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (3)

W. Gappmair, S. Hranilovic, and E. Leitgeb, “Performance of PPM on terrestrial FSO links with turbulence and pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(5), 468–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Abou-Rjeily, “On the optimality of the selection transmit diversity for MIMO-FSO links with feedback,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(6), 641–643 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Dhungana and C. Tellambura, “New simple approximations for error probability and outage in fading,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(11), 1760–1763 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

E. J. Lee and V. W. S. Chan, “Part 1: optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22(9), 1896–1906 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, “Selection transmit diversity for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017–1019 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

D. Love, “On the probability of error of antenna-subset selection with space-time block codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(11), 1799–1803 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, and R. K. Mallik, “Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(11), 3415–3424 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402–1412 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Processing (1)

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, “MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 50(10), 2580–2588 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (4)

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, “New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840–845 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, “Alamouti-type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

IET Commun. (2)

W. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun. 6(5), 499–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Samimi, “Performance analysis of free-space optical links with transmit laser selection diversity over strong turbulence channels,” IET Commun. 5(8), 1039–1043 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

N. Wang and J. Cheng, “Moment-based estimation for the shape parameters of the gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence model,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12824–12831 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Rate-adaptive FSO links over atmospheric turbulence channels by jointly using repetition coding and silence periods,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25422–25440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13480–13496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Asymptotic error-rate analysis of FSO links using transmit laser selection over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2096–2109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, and S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express 17(2), 872–887 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Han, A. Dang, Y. Ren, J. Tang, and H. Guo, “Theoretical and experimental studies of turbo product code with time diversity in free space optical communication,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26978–26988 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Space-time trellis coding with transmit laser selection for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5356–5366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Zambrana, B. Castillo-Vázquez, and C. Castillo-Vázquez, “Average capacity of FSO links with transmit laser selection using non-uniform OOK signaling over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20445–20454 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. E. Nistazakis and G. S. Tombras, “On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2088–2094 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Delayed diversity for fade resistance in optical wireless communication system through simulated turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5596, 385–394 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Trisno, I. I. Smolyaninov, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. World J. (1)

A. García-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vázquez, and B. Castillo-Vázquez, “Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels,” Sci. World J. 2014, 213834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

Wolfram Research Inc., “The Wolfram functions site,” URL http://functions.wolfram.com .

M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communications Over Fading Channels, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 2005).

H. A. David and H. N. Nagaraja, Order Statistics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley, 2003).
[Crossref]

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. J. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” in Proc. SPIE 4214, Optical Wireless Communications III (2001).

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th ed. (Academic, 2007).

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 BER performance using TALS over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels, when different weather conditions (a) C n 2 = 1.7 × 10 14 m 2 / 3 and (b) C n 2 = 8 × 10 14 m 2 / 3 are assumed for a link distance of d = 3 km and values of normalized beamwidth and jitter of (ωz/r, σs/r) = (5, 1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 BER performance using TALS over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels when a link distance of d = 5 km is assumed in the context of moderate turbulence together with values of normalized beamwidth of (a) ωz/r = 5 and (b) ωz/r = 10 and normalized jitter of σs/r = {1, 3, 6}.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y m ( t ) = η i m ( t ) x ( t ) + z ( t )
f I m ( i ) = α m β m φ m 2 A 0 ζ m Γ ( α m ) Γ ( β m ) G 1 , 3 3 , 0 ( α m β m A 0 ζ m i | φ m 2 φ m 2 1 , α m 1 , β m 1 ) , i 0
α = [ exp ( 0.49 σ R 2 / ( 1 + 1.11 σ R 12 / 5 ) 7 / 6 ) 1 ] 1
β = [ exp ( 0.51 σ R 2 / ( 1 + 0.69 σ R 12 / 5 ) 5 / 6 ) 1 ] 1
f I m ( i ) φ m 2 ( α m β m ) β m Γ ( α m β m ) ( A 0 ζ m ) β m Γ ( α m ) Γ ( β m ) ( φ m 2 β m ) i β m 1 e i α m β m ( φ m 2 β m ) A 0 ζ ( α m β m 1 ) ( β m φ m 2 + 1 ) , φ m 2 > β m
f I m ( i ) φ m 2 ( α m β m ) φ m 2 Γ ( α m φ m 2 ) Γ ( β m φ m 2 ) ( A 0 ζ m ) φ m 2 Γ ( α m ) Γ ( β m ) i φ m 2 1 , φ m 2 < β m
a m = { φ m 2 ( α m β m ) β m Γ ( α m β m ) ( A 0 ζ m ) β m Γ ( α m ) Γ ( β m ) ( φ m 2 β m ) , φ m 2 > β m φ m 2 ( α m β m ) φ m 2 Γ ( α m φ m 2 ) Γ ( β m φ m 2 ) ( A 0 ζ m ) φ m 2 Γ ( α m ) Γ ( β m ) , φ m 2 < β m b m = { β m 1 , φ m 2 > β m φ m 2 1 , φ m 2 < β m c m = { α m β m ( φ m 2 β m ) A 0 ζ ( α m β m 1 ) ( β m φ m 2 + 1 ) , φ m 2 > β m 0 , φ m 2 < β m
X 2 = [ x 1 x 2 ¯ x 2 x 1 ] , X 3 = [ x 1 x 3 ¯ x 2 ¯ x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 ] , X 4 = [ x 1 x 4 ¯ x 3 ¯ x 2 ¯ x 2 x 1 x 4 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 4 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 ]
[ r 1 r 2 r 3 ] [ 0 I ( L ) , ( 2 ) I ( L ) , ( 3 ) ] d E = [ I ( L ) , ( 1 ) I ( L 1 ) , ( 1 ) I ( L 2 ) , ( 1 ) I ( L 1 ) , ( 2 ) I ( L 2 ) , ( 2 ) I ( L ) , ( 2 ) I ( L 2 ) , ( 3 ) I ( L ) , ( 3 ) I ( L 1 ) , ( 3 ) ] [ x 1 x 2 x 3 ] + [ z 1 z 2 z 3 ]
m ( r , x ) = r r o H x 2
P ( X X ^ | { I ( r ) } L TDO + 1 r L ) = Q ( ( d E TDO ) 2 2 N 0 k = 1 TDO i k 2 )
P ( X X ^ | { I ( r ) } L TDO + 1 r L ) = Q ( 2 γ ξ TDO 2 k = 1 TDO i k 2 )
P ( X X ^ ) = 0 0 0 TDO-fold Q ( 2 γ ξ TDO 2 k = 1 TDO i k 2 ) r = L TDO + 1 L f I ( r ) ( i r L + TDO ) d i r L + TDO
f I ( r ) ( i ) = Γ ( L + 1 ) Γ ( r ) Γ ( L r + 1 ) f I ( i ) ( 1 F I ( i ) ) L r ( F I ( i ) ) r 1
f I ( r ) ( i ) Γ ( L + 1 ) Γ ( r ) Γ ( L r + 1 ) f I ( i ) ( F I ( i ) ) r 1 = Γ ( L + 1 ) a r b 1 r Γ ( r ) Γ ( L r + 1 ) exp ( c ( b r + 1 ) a ( b + 1 ) i ) i b r 1
P b ( E ) 1 n c X P ( X ) X X ^ n ( X , X ^ ) P ( X X ^ )
P b ( E ) TDO + 1 2 P ( X X ^ ) .
P b ( E ) TDO + 1 24 r L TDO + 1 L 0 exp ( γ ξ TDO 2 i r L + TDO 2 ) f I ( r ) ( i r L + TDO ) d i r L + TDO + TDO + 1 8 r = L TDO + 1 L 0 exp ( 4 γ ξ 3 TDO 2 i r L + TDO 2 ) f I ( r ) ( i r L + TDO ) d i r L + TDO
P b ( E ) TDO + 1 8 ( 1 3 r = L TDO + 1 L T r ( γ ξ TDO 2 ) + r = L TDO + 1 L T r ( 4 γ ξ 3 TDO 2 ) )
T r ( ρ ) = 0 exp ( ρ i 2 ) f I ( r ) ( i ) d i
T r ( ρ ) = Γ ( L + 1 ) a r b 1 r Γ ( r ) Γ ( L r + 1 ) Γ ( b r ) ρ b r / 2 H b r ( c ( b r + 1 ) 2 a ( b + 1 ) ρ )
P b ( E ) TDO + 1 8 ( b Γ ( L + 1 ) ) TDO ( a TDO b b ( γ ξ ) b / 2 ) TDO 2 ( L + L ) ( k = L L Γ ( b k ) Γ ( k ) Γ ( L k + 1 ) ) × ( 1 3 k = L L H b k ( A ( b k + 1 ) ) + ( 3 b / 2 2 b ) TDO 2 ( L + L ) k = L L H b k ( 3 2 A ( b k + 1 ) ) )
P b ( E ) TDO + 1 8 ( ( β Γ ( L + 1 ) ) 2 L + L Γ ( α β ) ( α TDO ) β β β + 1 Γ ( α ) Γ ( β ) ( γ ξ ) β / 2 ) TDO 2 ( L + L ) ( k = L L Γ ( β k ) Γ ( k ) Γ ( L k + 1 ) ) × ( 1 3 k = L L H β k ( A ( β k + 1 ) ) + ( 3 β / 2 2 β ) TDO 2 ( L + L ) k = L L H β k ( 3 2 A ( β k + 1 ) ) )
D [ d B ] 20 β log 10 ( φ 2 A 0 β ( φ 2 β ) ) .

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