Abstract

The conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation (THG) from mid-IR (3600 nm) to near-IR (1200 nm) regions in a silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW) was calculated. The required modal phase-matching condition (PMC) between the 0-th mode at fundamental wave (FW) and the 2-nd mode at third harmonic (TH) is achieved by carefully designing the waveguide geometry. Benefiting from the hybridized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nature of the two guided modes, the SSHPW is capable of achieving both high THG nonlinear coefficient |I6| and reasonable linear propagation loss, thereby resulting in large figure-of-merits (FOMs) for both FW and TH. According to our simulation, THG conversion efficiency up to 0.823% is achieved at 62.9 𝜇m SSHPW with pump power of 1 W.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

2010 (7)

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

P. Ginzburg, A. Hayat, N. Berkovitch, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlocal ponderomotive nonlinearity in plasmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1551–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20529–20534 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Martì, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. S. Prasad, D. D. Smith, and J. R. Magee, “Data communication in mid-IR using a solid-state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 4821, 214–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1980 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(11), 1401 (1964).

Afshar, S. V.

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Airey, R. J.

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alexander, J. I.

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ballesteros, G. C.

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bellec, M.

Berkovitch, N.

Blasco, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Martì, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boller, K. J.

Borschowa, L. A.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bousquet, B.

Boyd, R. W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Byer, R. L.

Canioni, L.

Cardinal, T.

Cassan, E.

J. Zhang, E. Cassan, and X. Zhang, “Efficient second harmonic generation from mid-infrared to near-infrared regions in silicon-organic hybrid plasmonic waveguides with small fabrication-error sensitivity and a large bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2089–2091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, T.

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cockburn, J. W.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Codemard, C. A.

Corcoran, B.

Cristiani, I.

Cui, Y.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daldosso, N.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, D.

Ding, M.

Drobshoff, A.

Duan, Z.

Edwards, D. F.

Eggleton, B. J.

Farr, W.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Fauchet, P. M.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Fédéli, J. M.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Galan, J. V.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Gao, W.

Garcia-Ruperez, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Garrido, B.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Gautier, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Ginzburg, P.

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Grillet, C.

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grubsky, V.

Guider, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Hayat, A.

Henderson, A. J.

Hernandez, S.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Hill, C.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Hopkinson, M.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

Ji, W.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jordana, E.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Jung, Y.

Kennedy, K.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keo, S.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. E.

Krasavin, A. V.

Krauss, T. F.

Krysa, A. B.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lacava, C.

Lam, H. Q.

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lebour, Y.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Lee, D. H.

Lee, T.

Levy, J. S.

Li, L.

Li, T.

Liao, M.

Lin, A.

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, H. C.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Lohe, M. A.

Lu, F. F.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magee, J. R.

N. S. Prasad, D. D. Smith, and J. R. Magee, “Data communication in mid-IR using a solid-state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 4821, 214–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Malitson, H.

H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(11), 1401 (1964).

Marti, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Martí, J.

Martì, J.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Martì, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matres, J.

Matsumoto, M.

Mead, R. D.

Menzel, S.

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meyn, J. P.

Minzioni, P.

Misumi, T.

Modotto, D.

Monat, C.

Monro, T. M.

Moss, D. J.

Myers, L. E.

Novotny, L.

O’Faolain, L.

Ochoa, E.

Ohishi, Y.

Orenstein, M.

Oton, C. J.

Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Pelusi, M.

Pigozzo, F. M.

Ping, S.

Piredda, G.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prasad, N. S.

N. S. Prasad, D. D. Smith, and J. R. Magee, “Data communication in mid-IR using a solid-state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 4821, 214–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qian, G.

Quidant, R.

Renger, J.

Revin, D. G.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roper, P. M.

Royon, A.

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Sakaguchi, S.

Sanchis, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Martì, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Savchenko, A.

Shakya, J.

Shao, X.

Shum, P. P.

Smith, D. D.

N. S. Prasad, D. D. Smith, and J. R. Magee, “Data communication in mid-IR using a solid-state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 4821, 214–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soibel, A.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spano, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Steer, M. J.

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Suzuki, T.

Tan, D. T. H.

Todoroki, S.

Toulouse, J.

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatram, N.

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
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Wabnitz, S.

Wallenstein, R.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
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White, T. P.

Willner, A. E.

Wilson, L. R.

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wright, M.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
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Wu, T.

Wu, Z.

Xie, Z. D.

Xu, J.

Yang, R. Q.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
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Yin, X.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
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Yue, Y.

Zayats, A. V.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
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Zhang, X.

J. Zhang, E. Cassan, and X. Zhang, “Efficient second harmonic generation from mid-infrared to near-infrared regions in silicon-organic hybrid plasmonic waveguides with small fabrication-error sensitivity and a large bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2089–2091 (2013).
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V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. N.

Zhu, Y. Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 𝜇m room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, R. J. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. B. Krysa, L. R. Wilson, and S. Menzel, “InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths close to 3 𝜇m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Influence of waveguide geometry on scattering loss effects in submicron strip silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IET Optoelectron. 2(1), 1–5 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(11), 1401 (1964).

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).

Nat. Commun. (1)

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Opt. Express (13)

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20529–20534 (2010).
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F. F. Lu, T. Li, J. Xu, Z. D. Xie, L. Li, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Surface plasmon polariton enhanced by optical parametric amplification in nonlinear hybrid waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2858–2865 (2011).
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T. Wu, Y. Sun, X. Shao, P. P. Shum, and T. Huang, “Efficient phase-matched third harmonic generation in an asymmetric plasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18612–18624 (2014).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
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J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11415–11421 (2011).
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C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
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T. Huang, X. Shao, Z. Wu, T. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Q. Lam, J. Zhang, G. Brambilla, and S. Ping, “Efficient one-third harmonic generation in highly Germania-doped fibers enhanced by pump attenuation,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28403–28413 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section view of the proposed nonlinear silico-silicon-nanocrystal (Si-Si-nc) hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Effective mode indices of the 0-th mode at FW and the 2-nd mode at TH as a function of the silicon slab height hSi; the corresponding 2D dominant field component Ey distributions of the (b) 0-th mode at FW, and (c) 2-nd mode at TH.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 1D Ey distributions along y cutline [as the dash lines shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b)].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Silicon slab height hSi, (b) pump-harmonic modal overlap related | I 6 | and the corresponding linear propagation loss, and (c) FOMs as a function of the slot height at different PMCs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fixed the pump power to be 1 W, (a) optical powers of FW and TH along the propagation distance, (b) conversion efficiency and the corresponding waveguide length versus the slot height h under PMCs.

Equations (9)

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A 1 z = α 1 2 A 1 α a ( r ) 2 A 1 +i[( I 1 | A 1 | 2 + I 2 | A 3 | 2 ) A 1 + I 3 ( A 1 * ) 2 A 3 e iδβz ]
A 3 z = α 3 2 A 3 α s ( r ) 2 A 3 +i[( I 4 | A 1 | 2 + I 5 | A 3 | 2 ) A 3 + I 6 ( A 1 ) 3 e -iδβz ]
I 1 = 1 12 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 1 , r ) n 2 ( ω 1 , r ) A NL (2 | F 1 | 4 + | F 1 2 | 2 ) dS
I 2 = 1 6 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 1 , r ) n 2 ( ω 1 , r ) A NL ( | F 1 | 2 | F 3 | 2 + | F 1 F 3 | 2 + | F 1 F 3 * | 2 ) dS
I 3 = 1 4 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 1 , r ) n 2 ( ω 1 , r ) A NL ( F 1 * F 3 ) ( F 1 * F 1 * )dS
I 4 = 1 2 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 3 , r ) n 2 ( ω 3 , r ) A NL ( | F 1 | 2 | F 3 | 2 + | F 1 F 3 | 2 + | F 1 F 3 * | 2 ) dS
I 5 = 1 4 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 3 , r ) n 2 ( ω 3 , r ) A NL (2 | F 3 | 4 + | F 3 2 | 2 ) dS
I 6 = 1 4 k 1 n 0 2 ( ω 3 , r ) n 2 ( ω 3 , r ) A NL ( F 1 * F 3 ) ( F 1 * F 1 * )dS
d P 3 (z) dz = α 3 P 3 (z)+2Im{ γ } P 3 2 (z)+2 I 6 P 1 3 2 (z) P 3 1 2 (z)sinΨ

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