Abstract

In this paper we describe an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery based on coarse integral volumetric imaging (CIVI) technology. There have been many volumetric display devices that present floating 3D images, most of which have not reproduced the visual occlusion. CIVI is a kind of multilayered integral imaging and realizes an aerial volumetric image with visual occlusion by combining multiview and volumetric display technologies. The conventional CIVI, however, cannot show a deep space, for the number of layered panels is limited because of the low transmittance of each panel. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel optical design to attain an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery. In the proposed system, a translucent display panel with 120 Hz refresh rate is located between the CIVI system and the aerial 3D image. The system modulates between the aerial image mode and the background image mode. In the aerial image mode, the elemental images are shown on the CIVI display and the inserted translucent display is uniformly translucent. In the background image mode, the black shadows of the elemental images in a white background are shown on the CIVI display and the background scenery is displayed on the inserted translucent panel. By alternation of these two modes at 120 Hz, an aerial 3D image that visually occludes the far background scenery is perceived by the viewer.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table-style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” SID 2010 Digest. 41(1), 211–214 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723726 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Ando, H.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table-style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” SID 2010 Digest. 41(1), 211–214 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cossairt, O. S.

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dorval, R. K.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ebisu, H.

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumentric solutions,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hill, S. L.

Javidi, B.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

Kakeya, H.

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral volumetric imaging with flat screen and wide viewing angle,” J. Electron. Imaging 21(1), 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Integral volumetric imaging using decentered elemental lenses,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25902–25913 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kakeya, “Realization of undistorted volumetric multiview image with multilayered integral imaging,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20395–20404 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723726 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumentric solutions,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900Y (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Y (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Kimura, T.

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumentric solutions,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Li, H.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Liu, X.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Matsuda, I.

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Y (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, K.

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

Miyazaki, D.

Napoli, J.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Peng, Y.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sawada, S.

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral volumetric imaging with flat screen and wide viewing angle,” J. Electron. Imaging 21(1), 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Integral volumetric imaging using decentered elemental lenses,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25902–25913 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, W.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Shiba, K.

Sotsuka, K.

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Tanimoto, M.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tehrani, M. P.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Traub, A. C.

Uchida, S.

Wang, H.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Xia, X.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yano, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table-style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” SID 2010 Digest. 41(1), 211–214 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yasui, R.

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Y (2006).
[Crossref]

Yendo, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table-style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” SID 2010 Digest. 41(1), 211–214 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral volumetric imaging with flat screen and wide viewing angle,” J. Electron. Imaging 21(1), 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. Commun. Image R. (1)

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723726 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Y (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumentric solutions,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900Y (2007).
[Crossref]

SID 2010 Digest. (1)

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table-style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” SID 2010 Digest. 41(1), 211–214 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

X. Xia, H. Wang, H. Li, Y. Peng, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, and W. Shen, “360-degree floating light field three-dimensional display based on a high-frame-rate color projector,” SID 2013 Digest.404–407 (2013).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (2620 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of coarse integral volumetric imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A translucent aerial image where the background can be seen through.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Position of the shadow changes depending on the viewpoint.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Principle of the proposed method.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Picture of the proposed system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Images observed from two different viewpoints (Media 1).

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