Abstract

To perform adequate simulations of luminescent cascade systems, a hybrid method combining a commercial ray tracer and a programming tool is presented. True Monte Carlo algorithms for luminescent materials, treating each ray individually, are adapted to allow wavelength conversion of ray sets. Two solutions for the wavelength conversion of ray sets are discussed: a random approach, where absorption events are randomly selected to create emission events, and a combined approach, where information from multiple absorption events is combined to create emission events. Both methods are applied to simulate the performance of a virtual remote phosphor light-emitting diode module. When using the combined approach, the required computation time to achieve sufficient accuracy is a factor 2 lower, compared to the time required when applying the random approach.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (9)

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Şahin and B. Ilan, “Radiative transport theory for light propagation in luminescent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(5), 813–820 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-S. Song, S.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Fabrication of warm, high CRI white LED using non-cadmium quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1468–1473 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. C. Shen, C. Y. Kuo, and M.-C. Fang, “Design and analysis of an underwater white LED fish-attracting lamp and its light propagation,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 10, 183 (2013).

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MK05 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, N. Zołek, and R. Macdonald, “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13188–13202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, K. W. J. Barnham, L. H. Slooff, A. J. Chatten, A. Büchtemann, A. Meyer, S. J. McCormack, R. Koole, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, J. Quilitz, M. Kennedy, T. Meyer, C. M. Donegá, A. Meijerink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators--A review of recent results,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21773–21792 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, and E. Bende, “The luminescent solar concentrator: a parameter study towards maximum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7002, 700209 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. S. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Overcoming the poor short-wavelength spectral response of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules via luminescence downshifting: ray-tracing simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(1), 27–34 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abass, A.

Acuña, P.

Audenaert, J.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Barnham, K. W. J.

Beeby, A.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bende, E.

L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, and E. Bende, “The luminescent solar concentrator: a parameter study towards maximum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7002, 700209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bende, E. E.

Bishop, S. M.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bittner, J.

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bogaert, L.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Borbély, Á.

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bose, R.

Büchtemann, A.

Budel, T.

Burgers, A. R.

Cappelle, J.

Carter, S. A.

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, E.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, P. C.-P.

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chatten, A. J.

Chen, W.-D.

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corrado, C.

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Criswell, G.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dachsbacher, C.

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Mello, A. J.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

De Smet, H.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, J. Cappelle, G. Durinck, A. Abass, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “The use of the adding-doubling method for the optical optimization of planar luminescent down shifting layers for solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A765–A778 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Dhami, S.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Donegá, C. M.

Durinck, G.

S. Leyre, J. Cappelle, G. Durinck, A. Abass, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “The use of the adding-doubling method for the optical optimization of planar luminescent down shifting layers for solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A765–A778 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, M.-C.

S. C. Shen, C. Y. Kuo, and M.-C. Fang, “Design and analysis of an underwater white LED fish-attracting lamp and its light propagation,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 10, 183 (2013).

Farrell, D. J.

Freniere, E. R.

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

Galande, C.

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gardner, C.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosch, T.

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

S. Leyre, J. Cappelle, G. Durinck, A. Abass, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “The use of the adding-doubling method for the optical optimization of planar luminescent down shifting layers for solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A765–A778 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Hapala, M.

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Havran, V.

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hlavaty, J.

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofkens, J.

Hu, R.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MK05 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huriet, B.

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ilan, B.

D. Şahin and B. Ilan, “Radiative transport theory for light propagation in luminescent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(5), 813–820 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.-L.

Johnson, S. G.

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kautz, J.

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kelley, D. F.

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, M.

Koole, R.

Kostro, A.

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. Y.

S. C. Shen, C. Y. Kuo, and M.-C. Fang, “Design and analysis of an underwater white LED fish-attracting lamp and its light propagation,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 10, 183 (2013).

Lee, I. W.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

Lee, W. Y.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. W.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leloup, F. B.

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leow, S. W.

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leyre, S.

Li, J.-D.

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liebert, A.

Lim, T. K.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Luo, X.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MK05 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

Markvarta, T.

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

McCormack, S. J.

McIntosh, K. R.

B. S. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Overcoming the poor short-wavelength spectral response of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules via luminescence downshifting: ray-tracing simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(1), 27–34 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meijerink, A.

Meuret, Y.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meyer, A.

Meyer, T.

Meyer, T. J. J.

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

Murat, H.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Osborn, M.

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pfefer, J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Quilitz, J.

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Overcoming the poor short-wavelength spectral response of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules via luminescence downshifting: ray-tracing simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(1), 27–34 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritschel, T.

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rumbles, G.

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sahin, D.

D. Şahin and B. Ilan, “Radiative transport theory for light propagation in luminescent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(5), 813–820 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scartezzini, J.-L.

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schüler, A.

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. C.

S. C. Shen, C. Y. Kuo, and M.-C. Fang, “Design and analysis of an underwater white LED fish-attracting lamp and its light propagation,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 10, 183 (2013).

Slooff, L. H.

Smith, L.

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, W.-S.

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-H.

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Giel, B.

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

Vandeghinste, F.

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

Vinkler, M.

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, F.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Warren, S.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenzl, F.-P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yu, S.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MK05 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhong, L.-S.

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.-M.

Zolek, N.

Zou, Y.

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Graph. Forum (2)

T. Ritschel, C. Dachsbacher, T. Grosch, and J. Kautz, “The state of the art in interactive global illumination,” Comput. Graph. Forum 31(1), 160–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Vinkler, J. Bittner, V. Havran, and M. Hapala, “Massively parallel hierarchical scene processing with applications in rendering,” Comput. Graph. Forum 32(8), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, L. Bogaert, H. Murat, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator,” Displays 29(5), 464–470 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, S. Yu, Y. Zou, H. Zheng, F. Wang, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Near-/mid-field effect of color mixing for single phosphor-converted light-emitting diode package,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 246–249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. (1)

S. C. Shen, C. Y. Kuo, and M.-C. Fang, “Design and analysis of an underwater white LED fish-attracting lamp and its light propagation,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 10, 183 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MK05 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(2), 166–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

P. C.-P. Chao, C.-H. Tsai, J.-D. Li, and W.-D. Chen, “Optimizing angular placements of the LEDs in a LCD backlight module for maximizing optical efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(9–10), 1669–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, F. B. Leloup, B. Van Giel, G. Durinck, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Impact of the accurateness of bidirectional reflectance distribution function data on the intensity and luminance distributions of a light-emitting diode mixing chamber as obtained by simulations,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

S. Dhami, A. J. de Mello, G. Rumbles, S. M. Bishop, D. Phillips, and A. Beeby, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence at high concentration: dimers or reabsorption effect?” Photochem. Photobiol. 61(4), 341–346 (1995).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

T. J. J. Meyer, J. Hlavaty, L. Smith, E. R. Freniere, and T. Markvarta, “Ray racing techniques applied to modelling of fluorescent solar collectors,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72110N (2009).
[Crossref]

L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, and E. Bende, “The luminescent solar concentrator: a parameter study towards maximum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7002, 700209 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. W. Leow, C. Corrado, M. Osborn, and S. A. Carter, “Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics,” Proc. SPIE 8821, 882103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schüler, A. Kostro, B. Huriet, C. Galande, and J.-L. Scartezzini, “Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators: ray tracing based on fluorescence mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7046, 704609 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. Vandeghinste, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Feasibility study of a brute-force ray tracing approach to obtain luminance maps of luminaires modeled with ray files,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170L (2010).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

B. S. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Overcoming the poor short-wavelength spectral response of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules via luminescence downshifting: ray-tracing simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(1), 27–34 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flowchart of the hybrid ray tracing algorithm. VAD and VED stand for volumetric absorption and emission distribution, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of information in the volumetric absorption distributions (VAD) and the volumetric emission distributions (VED). “Pos” stands for position, and “dir” stands for direction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Flowchart of the two approaches for the conversion of volumetric absorption distributions (VADs) to a volumetric emission distribution (VED): (a) the random approach, and (b) the combined approach.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Geometry used for the validation. The yellow square represents the source, emitting blue rays perpendicular onto one of the sides of the orange cube, containing the luminescent particles. The hollow sphere (gray) acts as detector and captures all rays escaping the cube.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic representation of the remote phosphor LED module (a), and the absorption and emission spectra of the luminescent materials used for the remote phosphor converter and the blue LEDs (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spectral radiant flux of the remote phosphor LED module obtained from the presented hybrid ray tracer (HRT) and a true Monte Carlo (TMC) ray tracer, together with the deviation between both spectra.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The simulated spectral radiant flux of the remote phosphor LED module obtained with the random and combined approach, using 1000 rays per wavelength for the simulations.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The average relative standard deviation of the simulated spectral radiant flux using the random and combined approach (a), and the corresponding computation time (b). The dashed black line denotes the desired maximum average relative standard deviation threshold of 1%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical properties and simulations result, µa and wM are the absorption coefficients and emission weights, Φscource and Φdet are the flux emitted by the source and captured by the detector.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ em ( λ M )= Φ abs ( λ Xi ) . w M ( λ M , λ Xi ).QE( λ Xi ). λ Xi w M ( λ M , λ Xi ). λ M .d λ M .d λ Xi
Φ em ( λ M )= j=1 R Φ abs ( λ Xi ) . w X,j ( λ Xi ). w M,j ( λ M , λ Xi ).Q E j ( λ Xi ). λ Xi w M,1 ( λ M , λ Xi ). λ M .d λ M .d λ Xi
w X,j ( λ Xi )= μ a,j ( λ Xi ) μ a,1 ( λ Xi )+ μ a,2 ( λ Xi )+...+ μ a,R ( λ Xi )
Φ T = Φ source .exp( μ a .d)

Metrics