Abstract

This study aims to detect colorectal cancer with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and feature selection techniques. A total of 306 Raman spectra of colorectal cancer tissues and normal tissues are acquired from 44 colorectal cancer patients. Five diagnostically important Raman bands in the regions of 815-830, 935-945, 1131-1141, 1447-1457 and 1665-1675cm−1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids of tissues are identified with the ant colony optimization (ACO) and support vector machine (SVM). The diagnostic models built with the identified Raman bands provide a diagnostic accuracy of 93.2% for identifying colorectal cancer from normal Raman spectroscopy. The study demonstrates that the Raman spectroscopy associated with ACO-SVM diagnostic algorithms has great potential to characterize and diagnose colorectal cancer.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

M. E. Keating and H. J. Byrne, “Raman spectroscopy in nanomedicine: current status and future perspective,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(8), 1335–1351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, B. B. Praveen, N. Bellini, A. Riches, K. Dholakia, and C. S. Herrington, “Multi-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography for the discrimination of colonic adenocarcinoma from normal colon,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2179–2186 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Abdat, M. Amouroux, Y. Guermeur, and W. Blondel, “Hybrid feature selection and SVM-based classification for mouse skin precancerous stages diagnosis from bimodal spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(1), 228–244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Balabin and S. V. Smirnov, “Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data,” Anal. Chim. Acta 692(1-2), 63–72 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Saha and V. V. Yakovlev, “Towards a rational drug design: Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of prostate cancer cells treated with an aqueous extract of Nerium Oleander,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(11), 1459–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. L. Huang and C. J. Liao, “Ant colony optimization combined with taboo search for the job shop scheduling problem,” Comput. Oper. Res. 35(4), 1030–1046 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Martens, M. D. Backer, and R. Haesen, “Classification With Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11(5), 651–665 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Fox, W. Xiang, and H. P. Lee, “Industrial applications of the ant colony optimization algorithm,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 31(7-8), 805–814 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Qin, F. Zheng, M. Sun, and D. Shi, “Diagnosis of colorectal cancer using Raman spectroscopy of laser-trapped single living epithelial cells,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2015–2017 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Dorigo and C. Blum, “Ant colony optimization theory: A survey,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 344(2-3), 243–278 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Faraggi and B. Reiser, “Estimation of the area under the ROC curve,” Stat. Med. 21(20), 3093–3106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. J. C. Burges, “A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition,” Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 2(2), 121–167 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Dash and H. Liu, “Feature Selection for Classification,” Intell. Data Anal. 1(1-4), 131–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abdat, F.

Abdel-Hamid, M.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramczyk, H.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Almond, L. M.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amouroux, M.

Andrade, P. O.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashok, P. C.

Awa, K.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

Backer, M. D.

D. Martens, M. D. Backer, and R. Haesen, “Classification With Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11(5), 651–665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balabin, R. M.

R. M. Balabin and S. V. Smirnov, “Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data,” Anal. Chim. Acta 692(1-2), 63–72 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bellini, N.

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bessant, C.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitar, R. A.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blondel, W.

Blum, C.

M. Dorigo and C. Blum, “Ant colony optimization theory: A survey,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 344(2-3), 243–278 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brozek-Pluska, B.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruno, P. M.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burges, C. J. C.

C. J. C. Burges, “A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition,” Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 2(2), 121–167 (1998).
[Crossref]

Byrne, H. J.

M. E. Keating and H. J. Byrne, “Raman spectroscopy in nanomedicine: current status and future perspective,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(8), 1335–1351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, K.

Chen, Q. Y.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Chen, Y.

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dash, M.

M. Dash and H. Liu, “Feature Selection for Classification,” Intell. Data Anal. 1(1-4), 131–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

Ding, C.

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

Ding, Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorigo, M.

M. Dorigo and C. Blum, “Ant colony optimization theory: A survey,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 344(2-3), 243–278 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drake, S. K.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duraipandian, S.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, F. R.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraggi, D.

D. Faraggi and B. Reiser, “Estimation of the area under the ROC curve,” Stat. Med. 21(20), 3093–3106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Fisher, S. E.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, B.

B. Fox, W. Xiang, and H. P. Lee, “Industrial applications of the ant colony optimization algorithm,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 31(7-8), 805–814 (2006).
[Crossref]

Freund, R.

E. Osuna, R. Freund, and F. Girosit, “Training support vector machines: an application to face detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130–136.
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

Ghosh, S. K.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girosit, F.

E. Osuna, R. Freund, and F. Girosit, “Training support vector machines: an application to face detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130–136.
[Crossref]

Goldman, R.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guermeur, Y.

Guo, Z. Y.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haesen, R.

D. Martens, M. D. Backer, and R. Haesen, “Classification With Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11(5), 651–665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. T.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrington, C. S.

High, A. S.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hortin, G. L.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

Huang, K. L.

K. L. Huang and C. J. Liao, “Ant colony optimization combined with taboo search for the job shop scheduling problem,” Comput. Oper. Res. 35(4), 1030–1046 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. F.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchings, J.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilancheran, A.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallaway, C.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanematsu, W.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keating, M. E.

M. E. Keating and H. J. Byrne, “Raman spectroscopy in nanomedicine: current status and future perspective,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(8), 1335–1351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kirkham, J.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, T. W.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurczewski, K.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lam, S.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. P.

B. Fox, W. Xiang, and H. P. Lee, “Industrial applications of the ant colony optimization algorithm,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 31(7-8), 805–814 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, J. F.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. F.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. B.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. X.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. J.

K. L. Huang and C. J. Liao, “Ant colony optimization combined with taboo search for the job shop scheduling problem,” Comput. Oper. Res. 35(4), 1030–1046 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

Lin, J.

Lin, K.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

M. Dash and H. Liu, “Feature Selection for Classification,” Intell. Data Anal. 1(1-4), 131–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. H.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. M.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loffredo, C. A.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, J. J.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mai, H. Q.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martens, D.

D. Martens, M. D. Backer, and R. Haesen, “Classification With Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11(5), 651–665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martin, A. A.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Hirsch, D. P.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinho, H.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molckovsky, A.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morawiec, Z.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Motz, J. T.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, J.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osuna, E.

E. Osuna, R. Freund, and F. Girosit, “Training support vector machines: an application to face detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130–136.
[Crossref]

Ozaki, Y.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

Placek, I.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Praveen, B. B.

Qin, Y.

Reiser, B.

D. Faraggi and B. Reiser, “Estimation of the area under the ROC curve,” Stat. Med. 21(20), 3093–3106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, B.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rennie, A.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ressom, H. W.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riches, A.

Saha, A.

A. Saha and V. V. Yakovlev, “Towards a rational drug design: Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of prostate cancer cells treated with an aqueous extract of Nerium Oleander,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(11), 1459–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Santo, A. M. E.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattlecker, M.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafer, K. E.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, X.

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shi, D.

Shim, M. G.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinzawa, H.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, S. V.

R. M. Balabin and S. V. Smirnov, “Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data,” Anal. Chim. Acta 692(1-2), 63–72 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, J. B. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

Song, L. M.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

Tazbir, M.

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teh, M.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z. Q.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, Q.

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Upile, T.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, R. S.

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, M. M.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waqar-Uddin, H.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheatley, S. R.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, J.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, W.

B. Fox, W. Xiang, and H. P. Lee, “Industrial applications of the ant colony optimization algorithm,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 31(7-8), 805–814 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

Xiong, H. L.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

A. Saha and V. V. Yakovlev, “Towards a rational drug design: Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of prostate cancer cells treated with an aqueous extract of Nerium Oleander,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(11), 1459–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan So, J. B.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yassoyama, K.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

Zeng, H.

Zeng, Q. Y.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. J.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, F.

Zheng, W.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. S.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

R. M. Balabin and S. V. Smirnov, “Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data,” Anal. Chim. Acta 692(1-2), 63–72 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (2)

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(20), 4328–4336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bioinformatics (1)

H. W. Ressom, R. S. Varghese, S. K. Drake, G. L. Hortin, M. Abdel-Hamid, C. A. Loffredo, and R. Goldman, “Peak selection from MALDI-TOF mass spectra using ant colony optimization,” Bioinformatics 23(5), 619–626 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Cancer (1)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Oper. Res. (1)

K. L. Huang and C. J. Liao, “Ant colony optimization combined with taboo search for the job shop scheduling problem,” Comput. Oper. Res. 35(4), 1030–1046 (2008).
[Crossref]

Data Min. Knowl. Discov. (1)

C. J. C. Burges, “A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition,” Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 2(2), 121–167 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head Neck Oncol (1)

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. (1)

D. Martens, M. D. Backer, and R. Haesen, “Classification With Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11(5), 651–665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

B. Fox, W. Xiang, and H. P. Lee, “Industrial applications of the ant colony optimization algorithm,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 31(7-8), 805–814 (2006).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cancer (2)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer using Raman endoscopy and ant colony optimization techniques,” Int. J. Cancer 128(11), 2673–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Intell. Data Anal. (1)

M. Dash and H. Liu, “Feature Selection for Classification,” Intell. Data Anal. 1(1-4), 131–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Chen, Y. J. Zhang, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, H. Q. Mai, and S. H. Liu, “Detection of nasopharyngeal cancer using confocal Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

B. Brożek-Płuska, I. Placek, K. Kurczewski, Z. Morawiec, M. Tazbir, and H. Abramczyk, “Breast cancer diagnostics by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 141(3), 145–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (3)

A. Saha and V. V. Yakovlev, “Towards a rational drug design: Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of prostate cancer cells treated with an aqueous extract of Nerium Oleander,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(11), 1459–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanomedicine (1)

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanomedicine (Lond) (1)

M. E. Keating and H. J. Byrne, “Raman spectroscopy in nanomedicine: current status and future perspective,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(8), 1335–1351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. (1)

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. (1)

Z. Gao, B. Hu, C. Ding, and J. Yu, “Micro Raman Spect ra for Lipids in Colorectal Tissue,” Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 30, 692–696 (2010).

Stat. Med. (1)

D. Faraggi and B. Reiser, “Estimation of the area under the ROC curve,” Stat. Med. 21(20), 3093–3106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and Biomolecular modeling,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[PubMed]

Theor. Comput. Sci. (1)

M. Dorigo and C. Blum, “Ant colony optimization theory: A survey,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 344(2-3), 243–278 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Dorigo and T. Stützle, Ant Colony Optimization (Academic,2004).

E. Osuna, R. Freund, and F. Girosit, “Training support vector machines: an application to face detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130–136.
[Crossref]

V. Vapnik, Statistical Learning Theory (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) H&E staining of adenocarcinoma of colon: a case showing loss of normal glandular architeture, marked nuclear atypia with prominent nucleoli and a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Magnification, 100 × . (b) H&E staining of normal colorectal tissue: a case showing colorectal pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, no cell atypia. Magnification, 100 × .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Norrmalized average Raman spectra of colorectal tissue in the range from 610 to 1700 cm−1. The solid lines indicate the average spectra and the shaded lines represent one standard deviation. (a) Colorectal cancer tissue spectra (b) normal colorectal tissue spectra (c) cancer-normal difference spectra.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The diagnostic accuracy of the individual ± 1SD versus the best performance individuals in 100 iterations with ACO-SVM algorithms. (40 ants, ρ = 0.2, α = 0.8, β = 1.5)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The cumulative counts of Raman bands chosen with ACO-SVM algorithms in 100 runs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3D map of overall diagnostic accuracy as a function of the parameter C and Gaussian radial width σ using the RBF kernel SVM algorithm with the Raman bands of 815-830, 935-945, 1131-1141, 1447-1457 and 1665-1675cm−1. The largest diagnostic accuracy of 93.2% locates at C = 28 and σ = 2−14.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of Raman spectra classification results from colorectal cancer and normal tissue with PCA-LDA and ACO-SVM algorithms together with the leave-one-tissue site-out cross-validation method. The integration area under the ROC curves for PCA-LDA and ACO-SVM are 0.961 and 0.971, respectively, illustrating the efficacy of ACO-SVM in colorectal cancer diagnosis with Raman spectroscopy.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Tentative assignment of significant Raman bands identified by ACO-SVM algorithms [8, 12, 2730].

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Table 2 The results of various classifier methods in discriminating between the cancer and normal samples

Equations (2)

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p i ( t ) = ( τ i ( t ) ) α η i β i ( τ i ( t ) ) α η i β
τ i ( t + 1 ) = ρ τ i ( t ) + Δ τ i ( t )

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