Abstract

We report on overall enhancement of a single-stage laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) using the ionization injection in a mixture of 0.3% nitrogen gas in 99.7% helium gas. Upon the interaction of 30-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a gas jet of the above gas mixture, >300 MeV electron beams were generated at a helium plasma densities of 3.3‒8.5 × 1018 cm−3. Compared with the uncontrolled electron self-injection in pure helium gas jet, the ionization injection process due to the presence of ultra-low nitrogen concentrations appears to be self-controlled; it has led to the generation of electron beams with higher energies, higher charge, lower density threshold for trapping, and a narrower energy spread without dark current (low energy electrons) or multiple bunches. It is foreseen that further optimization of such a scheme is expected to bring the electron beam energy-spread down to 1%, making them suitable for driving ultra-compact free-electron lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  30. A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. S. Kalmykov, S. A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, “Electron self-injection and trapping into an evolving plasma bubble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 135004 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, “Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10(6), 061301 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Zeng, M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, W. B. Mori, and J. Zhang, “Self-truncated ionization injection and consequent monoenergetic electron bunches in laser wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Plasmas 21(3), 030701 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Li, N. A. M. Hafz, M. Mirzaie, X. Ge, T. Sokollik, M. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Stable laser-plasma accelerators at low densities,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043109 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

F. Y. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Liu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, W. B. Mori, W. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Dense attosecond electron sheets from laser wakefields using an up-ramp density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 135002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Mo, A. Ali, S. Fourmaux, P. Lassonde, J. C. Kieffer, and R. Fedosejevs, “Generation of 500 MeV‒1 GeV energy electrons from laser wakefiled acceleration via ionization induced injection using CO2 mixed in He,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 134102 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Nakajima, H. Lu, X. Zhao, B. Shen, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “100-GeV large scale laser plasma electron acceleration by a multi-PW laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(1), 013501 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, R. Zgadzaj, N. Fazel, Z. Li, S. A. Yi, X. Zhang, W. Henderson, Y. Y. Chang, R. Korzekwa, H. E. Tsai, C. H. Pai, H. Quevedo, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, M. Martinez, A. C. Bernstein, T. Borger, M. Spinks, M. Donovan, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, T. Ditmire, and M. C. Downer, “Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV,” Nat Commun. 4, 1988 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Zeng, N. A. M. Hafz, K. Nakajima, L. M. Chen, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Controlled ionization-induced injection by tailoring the gas-density profile in laser wakefield acceleration,” J. Plasma Phys. 78(4), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. J. Cha, I. W. Choi, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, K. H. Nam, T. M. Jeong, and J. Lee, “Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(6), 063301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. S. Liu, C. Q. Xia, W. T. Wang, H. Y. Lu, Ch. Wang, A. H. Deng, W. T. Li, H. Zhang, X. Y. Liang, Y. X. Leng, X. M. Lu, C. Wang, J. Z. Wang, K. Nakajima, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “All-optical cascaded laser wakefield accelerator using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(3), 035001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Benedetti, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13(10), 101301 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Injection and trapping of tunnel-ionized electrons into laser-produced wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. Kalmykov, S. A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, “Electron self-injection and trapping into an evolving plasma bubble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 135004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Leemans and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-wave electron accelerators,” Phys. Today 62(3), 44–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Rechatin, J. Faure, A. Ben-Ismail, J. Lim, R. Fitour, A. Specka, H. Videau, A. Tafzi, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “Controlling the phase-space volume of injected electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(16), 164801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. G. R. Geddes, K. Nakamura, G. R. Plateau, C. Toth, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J. R. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “Plasma-density-gradient injection of low absolute-momentum-spread electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 215004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. M. Hafz, T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, S. K. Lee, K. H. Pae, V. V. Kulagin, J. H. Sung, T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, T. Hosokai, J. R. Cary, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Stable generation of GeV-calss electron beams from self-guided laser-plasma channels,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 571–577 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Oguchi, A. Zhidkov, K. Takano, E. Hotta, K. Nemoto, and K. Nakajima, “Multiple self-injection in the acceleration of monoenergetic electrons by a laser wake field,” Phys. Plasmas 15(4), 043102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, “Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10(6), 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Electron injection and trapping in a laser wakefield by field ionization to high-charge states of gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 056109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka, “Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses,” Nature 444(7120), 737–739 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Tóth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimeter-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

C. G. R. Geddes, C. S. Toth, J. Van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431(7008), 538–541 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wave breaking,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(5), R5257–R5260 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wakefield by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2682–2685 (1997).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43(4), 267–270 (1979).
[Crossref]

Albert, F.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, A.

M. Z. Mo, A. Ali, S. Fourmaux, P. Lassonde, J. C. Kieffer, and R. Fedosejevs, “Generation of 500 MeV‒1 GeV energy electrons from laser wakefiled acceleration via ionization induced injection using CO2 mixed in He,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 134102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Auerbach, D.

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M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
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Lu, H. Y.

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Lu, W.

F. Y. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Liu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, W. B. Mori, W. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Dense attosecond electron sheets from laser wakefields using an up-ramp density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 135002 (2013).
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J. S. Liu, C. Q. Xia, W. T. Wang, H. Y. Lu, Ch. Wang, A. H. Deng, W. T. Li, H. Zhang, X. Y. Liang, Y. X. Leng, X. M. Lu, C. Wang, J. Z. Wang, K. Nakajima, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “All-optical cascaded laser wakefield accelerator using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(3), 035001 (2011).
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Malka, V.

C. Rechatin, J. Faure, A. Ben-Ismail, J. Lim, R. Fitour, A. Specka, H. Videau, A. Tafzi, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “Controlling the phase-space volume of injected electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(16), 164801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka, “Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses,” Nature 444(7120), 737–739 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
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A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Injection and trapping of tunnel-ionized electrons into laser-produced wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 025003 (2010).
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E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
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X. Wang, R. Zgadzaj, N. Fazel, Z. Li, S. A. Yi, X. Zhang, W. Henderson, Y. Y. Chang, R. Korzekwa, H. E. Tsai, C. H. Pai, H. Quevedo, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, M. Martinez, A. C. Bernstein, T. Borger, M. Spinks, M. Donovan, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, T. Ditmire, and M. C. Downer, “Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV,” Nat Commun. 4, 1988 (2013).
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C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
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A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Injection and trapping of tunnel-ionized electrons into laser-produced wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 025003 (2010).
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Meinecke, J.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meseck, A.

A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

F. Y. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Liu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, W. B. Mori, W. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Dense attosecond electron sheets from laser wakefields using an up-ramp density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 135002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirzaie, M.

S. Li, N. A. M. Hafz, M. Mirzaie, X. Ge, T. Sokollik, M. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Stable laser-plasma accelerators at low densities,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043109 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mo, M. Z.

M. Z. Mo, A. Ali, S. Fourmaux, P. Lassonde, J. C. Kieffer, and R. Fedosejevs, “Generation of 500 MeV‒1 GeV energy electrons from laser wakefiled acceleration via ionization induced injection using CO2 mixed in He,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 134102 (2013).
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Mori, W. B.

M. Zeng, M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, W. B. Mori, and J. Zhang, “Self-truncated ionization injection and consequent monoenergetic electron bunches in laser wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Plasmas 21(3), 030701 (2014).
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F. Y. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Liu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, W. B. Mori, W. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Dense attosecond electron sheets from laser wakefields using an up-ramp density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 135002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zeng, N. A. M. Hafz, K. Nakajima, L. M. Chen, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Controlled ionization-induced injection by tailoring the gas-density profile in laser wakefield acceleration,” J. Plasma Phys. 78(4), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Injection and trapping of tunnel-ionized electrons into laser-produced wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, “Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10(6), 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. P. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
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Mourou, G. A.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
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Muggli, P.

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
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Murphy, C. D.

S. P. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
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Nagler, B.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Tóth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimeter-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).

Najmudin, Z.

S. P. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
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Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, H. Lu, X. Zhao, B. Shen, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “100-GeV large scale laser plasma electron acceleration by a multi-PW laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(1), 013501 (2013).
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M. Zeng, N. A. M. Hafz, K. Nakajima, L. M. Chen, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Controlled ionization-induced injection by tailoring the gas-density profile in laser wakefield acceleration,” J. Plasma Phys. 78(4), 363–371 (2012).
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J. S. Liu, C. Q. Xia, W. T. Wang, H. Y. Lu, Ch. Wang, A. H. Deng, W. T. Li, H. Zhang, X. Y. Liang, Y. X. Leng, X. M. Lu, C. Wang, J. Z. Wang, K. Nakajima, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “All-optical cascaded laser wakefield accelerator using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(3), 035001 (2011).
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A. Oguchi, A. Zhidkov, K. Takano, E. Hotta, K. Nemoto, and K. Nakajima, “Multiple self-injection in the acceleration of monoenergetic electrons by a laser wake field,” Phys. Plasmas 15(4), 043102 (2008).
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Nakamura, K.

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
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C. G. R. Geddes, K. Nakamura, G. R. Plateau, C. Toth, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J. R. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “Plasma-density-gradient injection of low absolute-momentum-spread electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 215004 (2008).
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W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Tóth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimeter-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).

Nam, K. H.

H. J. Cha, I. W. Choi, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, K. H. Nam, T. M. Jeong, and J. Lee, “Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(6), 063301 (2012).
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Naumova, N.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wave breaking,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(5), R5257–R5260 (1998).
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Nemoto, K.

A. Oguchi, A. Zhidkov, K. Takano, E. Hotta, K. Nemoto, and K. Nakajima, “Multiple self-injection in the acceleration of monoenergetic electrons by a laser wake field,” Phys. Plasmas 15(4), 043102 (2008).
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Nieter, C.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. S. Toth, J. Van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431(7008), 538–541 (2004).
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Norlin, A.

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka, “Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses,” Nature 444(7120), 737–739 (2006).
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Norreys, P. A.

S. P. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connell, C.

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oguchi, A.

A. Oguchi, A. Zhidkov, K. Takano, E. Hotta, K. Nemoto, and K. Nakajima, “Multiple self-injection in the acceleration of monoenergetic electrons by a laser wake field,” Phys. Plasmas 15(4), 043102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Osterhoff, J.

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oz, E.

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
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Pae, K. H.

N. A. M. Hafz, T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, S. K. Lee, K. H. Pae, V. V. Kulagin, J. H. Sung, T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, T. Hosokai, J. R. Cary, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Stable generation of GeV-calss electron beams from self-guided laser-plasma channels,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 571–577 (2008).
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Pai, C. H.

X. Wang, R. Zgadzaj, N. Fazel, Z. Li, S. A. Yi, X. Zhang, W. Henderson, Y. Y. Chang, R. Korzekwa, H. E. Tsai, C. H. Pai, H. Quevedo, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, M. Martinez, A. C. Bernstein, T. Borger, M. Spinks, M. Donovan, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, T. Ditmire, and M. C. Downer, “Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV,” Nat Commun. 4, 1988 (2013).
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Pak, A.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
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A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Injection and trapping of tunnel-ionized electrons into laser-produced wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 025003 (2010).
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C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
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Panasenko, D.

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pegoraro, F.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wave breaking,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(5), R5257–R5260 (1998).
[Crossref]

Plateau, G. R.

C. G. R. Geddes, K. Nakamura, G. R. Plateau, C. Toth, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J. R. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “Plasma-density-gradient injection of low absolute-momentum-spread electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 215004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollock, B. B.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pukhov, A.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
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Quevedo, H.

X. Wang, R. Zgadzaj, N. Fazel, Z. Li, S. A. Yi, X. Zhang, W. Henderson, Y. Y. Chang, R. Korzekwa, H. E. Tsai, C. H. Pai, H. Quevedo, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, M. Martinez, A. C. Bernstein, T. Borger, M. Spinks, M. Donovan, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, T. Ditmire, and M. C. Downer, “Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV,” Nat Commun. 4, 1988 (2013).
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Ralph, J. E.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
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Rechatin, C.

C. Rechatin, J. Faure, A. Ben-Ismail, J. Lim, R. Fitour, A. Specka, H. Videau, A. Tafzi, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “Controlling the phase-space volume of injected electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(16), 164801 (2009).
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J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka, “Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses,” Nature 444(7120), 737–739 (2006).
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Reiche, S.

A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).

Rensink, T. C.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, J. S.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousseau, J.-P.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, J.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wave breaking,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(5), R5257–R5260 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, C. B.

A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
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C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, C. G. R. Geddes, C. Benedetti, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13(10), 101301 (2010).
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E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
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C. G. R. Geddes, K. Nakamura, G. R. Plateau, C. Toth, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J. R. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “Plasma-density-gradient injection of low absolute-momentum-spread electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 215004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Tóth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimeter-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).

C. G. R. Geddes, C. S. Toth, J. Van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431(7008), 538–541 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seggebrock, T.

A. R. Maier, A. Meseck, S. Reiche, C. B. Schroeder, T. Seggebrock, and F. Grüner, “Demonstration scheme for a laser-plasma-driven free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012).

Shaw, J.

B. B. Pollock, C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, A. Davidson, L. Divol, C. Filip, S. H. Glenzer, K. Herpoldt, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, J. Meinecke, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, T. C. Rensink, J. S. Ross, J. Shaw, G. R. Tynan, C. Joshi, and D. H. Froula, “Demonstration of a narrow energy spread, ∼0.5 GeV electron beam from a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, B.

Sheng, Z.

S. Li, N. A. M. Hafz, M. Mirzaie, X. Ge, T. Sokollik, M. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Stable laser-plasma accelerators at low densities,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043109 (2014).
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M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
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Sheng, Z. M.

M. Zeng, M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, W. B. Mori, and J. Zhang, “Self-truncated ionization injection and consequent monoenergetic electron bunches in laser wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Plasmas 21(3), 030701 (2014).
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F. Y. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Liu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, W. B. Mori, W. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Dense attosecond electron sheets from laser wakefields using an up-ramp density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 135002 (2013).
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M. Zeng, N. A. M. Hafz, K. Nakajima, L. M. Chen, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Controlled ionization-induced injection by tailoring the gas-density profile in laser wakefield acceleration,” J. Plasma Phys. 78(4), 363–371 (2012).
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M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, Y. Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Electron injection and trapping in a laser wakefield by field ionization to high-charge states of gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 056109 (2006).
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Shiraishi, S.

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamura, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 862–866 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

X. Wang, R. Zgadzaj, N. Fazel, Z. Li, S. A. Yi, X. Zhang, W. Henderson, Y. Y. Chang, R. Korzekwa, H. E. Tsai, C. H. Pai, H. Quevedo, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, M. Martinez, A. C. Bernstein, T. Borger, M. Spinks, M. Donovan, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, T. Ditmire, and M. C. Downer, “Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV,” Nat Commun. 4, 1988 (2013).
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S. Kalmykov, S. A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, “Electron self-injection and trapping into an evolving plasma bubble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 135004 (2009).
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Siemann, R. H.

E. Oz, S. Deng, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, C. D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F. J. Decker, P. Emma, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, R. H. Iverson, N. Kirby, P. Krejcik, C. O’Connell, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, D. Auerbach, C. E. Clayton, C. Huang, D. K. Johnson, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, and M. Zhou, “Ionization-induced electron trapping in ultrarelativistic plasma wakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(8), 084801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, L. O.

C. E. Clayton, J. E. Ralph, F. Albert, R. A. Fonseca, S. H. Glenzer, C. Joshi, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. B. Mori, A. Pak, F. S. Tsung, B. B. Pollock, J. S. Ross, L. O. Silva, and D. H. Froula, “Self-guided laser wakefield acceleration beyond 1 GeV using ionization-induced injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 105003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, “Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10(6), 061301 (2007).
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Sokollik, T.

M. Tao, N. A. M. Hafz, S. Li, M. Mirzaie, A. M. M. Elsied, X. Ge, F. Liu, T. Sokollik, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration in low density pure nitrogen,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 073102 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A comparison between the observed raw energy spectra of electron bunches generated from (a) pure He gas at the density of 7.5 × 1018 cm−3 and (b) the mixing gas of 0.3% N2 mixed with 99.7% helium the plasma density of 6.7 × 1018 cm−3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electron energy spectra of six successive shots for laser-driven gas jet of a 0.3% nitrogen mixed with 99.7% helium at the helium plasma density of (a)‒(d) 5 × 1018 cm−3 and (e)‒(f) 6.7 × 1018 cm−3; the laser power is written on each panel
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured electron beam charge versus the plasma density for two different targets: pure He (black solid circles) [31] and 99.7% He mixed with 0.3% N2 (red empty squares). The greyish shaded region represents the region that is below the injection threshold of helium electron density of 4.8 × 1018 cm−3 for pure He to the injection threshold of 3.3 × 1018 cm−3 for the gas mixture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The maximum peak energies (solid triangles) and average peak energies (empty circles) in electron energy spectra obtained from He mixed with 0.3% N2 as a function of (a) the laser power and (b) the plasma density. The standard deviation of peak energies is considered as the error bar in both graphs. The data in (a) is measured at the plasma density of 5 × 1018 cm−3, and the data in (b) is measured at the laser power of 30 TW. The red lines in (a) and (b) represent the energies predicted by the empirical law of Eq. (1).

Equations (1)

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ΔE( GeV ) 1.7 ( P 100 TW ) 1 3 ( 10 18  cm 3 n e ) 2 3 ( 0.8 μm λ 0 ) 4 3 ,

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