Abstract

We demonstrate porous silicon biological probes as a stable and non-toxic alternative to organic dyes or cadmium-containing quantum dots for imaging and sensing applications. The fluorescent silicon quantum dots which are embedded on the porous silicon surface are passivated with carboxyl-terminated ligands through stable Si–C covalent bonds. The porous silicon bio-probes have shown photoluminescence quantum yield around 50% under near-UV excitation, with high photochemical and thermal stability. The bio-probes can be efficiently conjugated with antibodies, which is confirmed by a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).
  10. C.-C. Tu, J. H. Hoo, K. F. Böhringer, L. Y. Lin, and G. Cao, “Red-emitting silicon quantum dot phosphors in warm white LEDs with excellent color rendering,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A276–A281 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Buriak, “Organometallic chemistry on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Chem. Rev. 102(5), 1271–1308 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Tu, J. H. Hoo, K. F. Böhringer, L. Y. Lin, and G. Cao, “Red-emitting silicon quantum dot phosphors in warm white LEDs with excellent color rendering,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A276–A281 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

2012 (3)

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Miyawaki, “Visualization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of intracellular signaling,” Dev. Cell 4(3), 295–305 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. M. Buriak, “Organometallic chemistry on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Chem. Rev. 102(5), 1271–1308 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adamec, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allan, G.

J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
[Crossref]

Averboukh, B.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bahrami, S.-B.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böhringer, K. F.

Brault, N. D.

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buriak, J. M.

J. M. Buriak, “Organometallic chemistry on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Chem. Rev. 102(5), 1271–1308 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, H.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, G.

Cavaliere-Jaricot, S.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. W.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clapp, A. R.

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, W. D.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

de Jeu, W. H.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Delerue, C.

J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
[Crossref]

Demirel, A. L.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohnalova, K.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Dohnalová, K.

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Donegá, C. M.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, R. G.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erogbogbo, F.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, B.

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fucikova, A.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, K.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabikian, P.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldman, E. R.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gooding, J. J.

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grabolle, M.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, W. M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, N. M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Gu, L.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hackman, R. C.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanada, S.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, S. J.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirakuri, K.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiruoka, M.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hof, M.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoo, J. H.

Hoshino, A.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, R.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-J.

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Humpolícková, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jurbergs, D.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koole, R.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kortshagen, U.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kusová, K.

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kusuma, Y.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, D.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, W.-C.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. F.

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. Y.

Linford, M. R.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowe, S. B.

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z. C.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Manabe, N.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangolini, L.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manome, Y.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattoussi, H.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauro, J. M.

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medintz, I. L.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyasaka, R.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyawaki, A.

A. Miyawaki, “Visualization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of intracellular signaling,” Dev. Cell 4(3), 295–305 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munoz, N. M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nann, T.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nissink, J. W. M.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nitschke, R.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olson, J. M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulusse, J. M. J.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Pelant, I.

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pietra, F.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poddubny, A. N.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Prasad, P. N.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prokofiev, A. A.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Proot, J. P.

J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
[Crossref]

Qin, G. G.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ravanpay, A. C.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reece, P. J.

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Resch-Genger, U.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riemersma, C.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, I.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruckenstein, E.

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ruoslahti, E.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sieval, A. B.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stroud, M. R.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudhölter, E. J. R.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Swihart, M. T.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sykora, M.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sze, R. W.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, C. A.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilley, R. D.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, C.-C.

Umesh, C. P.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Uyeda, H. T.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vácha, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

van der Maas, J. H.

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Veiseh, M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veiseh, O.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Maltzahn, G.

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, J. H.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, L.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yong, K. T.

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yong, K.-T.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Q.

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zong, W. H.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zuilhof, H.

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

F. Erogbogbo, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. M. Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9058–9067 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C.-J. Huang, N. D. Brault, Y. Li, Q. Yu, and S. Jiang, “Controlled hierarchical architecture in surface-initiated zwitterionic polymer brushes with structurally regulated functionalities,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1834–1837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. P. Proot, C. Delerue, and G. Allan, “Electronic structure and optical properties of silicon crystallites: Application to porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1948–1950 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bioconjug. Chem. (1)

F. Erogbogbo, C. A. Tien, C. W. Chang, K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, H. Ding, I. Roy, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots for selective uptake by cancer cells,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(6), 1081–1088 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

M. Veiseh, P. Gabikian, S.-B. Bahrami, O. Veiseh, M. Zhang, R. C. Hackman, A. C. Ravanpay, M. R. Stroud, Y. Kusuma, S. J. Hansen, D. Kwok, N. M. Munoz, R. W. Sze, W. M. Grady, N. M. Greenberg, R. G. Ellenbogen, and J. M. Olson, “Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci,” Cancer Res. 67(14), 6882–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. M. Buriak, “Organometallic chemistry on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Chem. Rev. 102(5), 1271–1308 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

X. Cheng, S. B. Lowe, P. J. Reece, and J. J. Gooding, “Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(8), 2680–2700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dev. Cell (1)

A. Miyawaki, “Visualization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of intracellular signaling,” Dev. Cell 4(3), 295–305 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

A. B. Sieval, A. L. Demirel, J. W. M. Nissink, M. R. Linford, J. H. van der Maas, W. H. de Jeu, H. Zuilhof, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Highly stable Si-C linked functionalized monolayers on the silicon (100) surface,” Langmuir 14(7), 1759–1768 (1998).
[Crossref]

Light: Science and Technology (1)

K. Dohnalova, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev, W. D. de Boer, C. P. Umesh, J. M. J. Paulusse, H. Zuilhof, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Surface brightens up Si quantum dots: direct bandgap-like size-tunable emission,” Light: Science and Technology 2, e47 (2013).

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

K. Fujioka, M. Hiruoka, K. Sato, N. Manabe, R. Miyasaka, S. Hanada, A. Hoshino, R. D. Tilley, Y. Manome, K. Hirakuri, and K. Yamamoto, “Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration,” Nanotechnology 19(41), 415102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J.-H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 331–336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Medintz, A. R. Clapp, H. Mattoussi, E. R. Goldman, B. Fisher, and J. M. Mauro, “Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors,” Nat. Mater. 2(9), 630–638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)-(e) Illustration of the synthesis process of the PS bio-probes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Particle size distribution of the PS bio-probe suspension in water, with (blue-line) and without (red-line) the “selective-etching” treatment. (b) and (c) TEM images of the PS bio-probes in low and high magnification, respectively. (d) Photographs of the PS bio-probe suspension in water under room light (left) and 365-nm excitation (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Center: PL spectra of the PS bio-probe suspension in water, made with a weak (red-curve), moderate (orange-ruve) and strong (green-curve) selective-etching condition. Left and Right: Excitation spectrum (blue-curve) and PL peak wavelength vs. excitation wavelength (red-diamonds) of the orange-curve sample. (b) and (c) PLQY vs. excitation wavelength and PL lifetime of the organge-curve sample in (a). (d) ATR-FTIR spectra of the PS bio-probe (blue-curve) and a reference PS sample passivated with pure alkyl chains (red-curve). (e) Time-resolved normalized PL intensity of the PS bio-probe suspension in water, under 405-nm high-power LED illumination with intensity = 2.8 mW / cm2 (red-curve), 2.1 mW / cm2 (green-curve) and 1.3 mW / cm2 (blue-curve), respectively. (f) Temperature-resolved normalized PL intensity of the PS bio-probe suspension in water. (Black-circle: increasing temperature; red-cross: decreasing temperature)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescent microscope image of the PS bio-probes assembled a glass slide coated with PDDA. (b) Illustration of the PS bio-probe conjugated with HRP-IgG though NHS/EDC. (c) and (d) After adding OPD, the photographs and the ELISA absorbance of Tube #1: HRP-IgG (0.1 μg / mL) in 1 mL PBS, Tube #2: PS bio-probes (0.5 mg / mL) in 1 mL PBS [activated by NHS/EDC and then incubated with HRP-IgG (0.1 μg / mL)], Tube #3: PS bio-probes (0.5 mg / mL) in 1 mL PBS [directly incubated with HRP-IgG (0.1 μg / mL)], and Tube #4: PS bio-probes (0.5 mg / mL) in 1 mL PBS as the blank

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