Abstract

Spatial multiplexer (SMUX) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) has evolved from mode-selective excitation, multiple-spot and photonic-lantern based solutions in order to minimize both mode-dependent loss (MDL) and coupler insertion loss (CIL). This paper discusses the implementation of all the three solutions by compact components in a small footprint. Moreover, the compact SMUX can be manufactured in mass production and packaged to assure high reliability. First, push-pull scheme and center launch based SMUXes are demonstrated on two mostly-popular photonic integration platforms: Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and Indium Phosphide (InP) for selectively exciting LP01 and LP11 modes. 2-dimensional (2D) top-coupling by using vertical emitters is explored to provide a coupling interface between a few-mode fiber (FMF) and the photonic integrated SMUX. SOI-based grating couplers and InP-based 45° vertical mirrors are proposed and researched as vertical emitters in each platform. Second, a 3-spot SMUX is realized on an InP-based circuit through employing 45° vertical mirrors. Third, as a newly-emerging photonic integration platform, laser-inscribed 3D waveguide (3DW) technology is applied for a fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX including two 6-core photonic lantern structures as mode multiplexer and demultiplexer, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (3)

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, E. C. Burrows, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “WDM/SDM transmission of 10 x 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK over 2688-km 7-core fiber with a per-fiber net aggregate spectral-efficiency distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz,” Opt. Express 20(2), 706–711 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-Based Mode Couplers for Mode-Multiplexed Transmission in Few-Mode Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Characterization of multimode fiber by selective mode excitation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(10), 1386–1392 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Energy-Efficient Optical Transport Capacity Scaling Through Spatial Multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 851–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems,” Opt. Express 19(26), B952–B957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Abe, Y.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

Ambrosius, H.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennett, K.

Bente, E.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Burrows, E.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Burrows, E. C.

Carpenter, J.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

Corbett, B.

Davis, K. M.

de Gabory, E. L. T.

de Waardt, H.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, M. Kuschnerov, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Optical chopper-based re-circulating loop for few-mode fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1181–1184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delbue, R.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Dhar, A.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Ellis, A. D.

Essiambre, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-Based Mode Couplers for Mode-Multiplexed Transmission in Few-Mode Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-Based Mode Couplers for Mode-Multiplexed Transmission in Few-Mode Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Giles, D.

Giles, I. P.

Gnauck, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Gnauck, A. H.

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, E. C. Burrows, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “WDM/SDM transmission of 10 x 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK over 2688-km 7-core fiber with a per-fiber net aggregate spectral-efficiency distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz,” Opt. Express 20(2), 706–711 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Grote, N.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Guan, B.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

Hiraga, K.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Hirao, K.

Hu, J.

Huang, Y.-K.

Huijskens, F.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Imamura, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

Ishida, I.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Ito, T.

Jung, Y.

Kawaguchi, Y.

Kawakami, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Koonen, A. M. J.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

Koonen, T.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koreshkov, K.

Korolev, A.

Kuschnerov, M.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, M. Kuschnerov, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Optical chopper-based re-circulating loop for few-mode fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1181–1184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leijtens, X.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leoni, P.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, M.-J.

Li, Z.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Liu, X.

Maeda, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Masuda, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Mateo, E.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

McCurdy, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Mestre, M. A.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Mimura, Y.

Miura, K.

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Mizuno, T.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Monberg, E. M.

Montoliu, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Morioka, T.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Morita, I.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Nielsen, L. G.

O’Brien, P.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okonkwo, C.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okonkwo, C. M.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Pan, Y.

Peckham, D. W.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Peng, W. R.

Poletti, F.

Pupalaikis, P.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Raz, O.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Robbins, D.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-Based Mode Couplers for Mode-Multiplexed Transmission in Few-Mode Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

Sahu, J. K.

Saito, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Saitoh, K.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Sano, A.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Sasaki, Y.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Schell, M.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Smit, M.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Snyder, B.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugizaki, R.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Sun, Y.

Sureka, A.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Tadakuma, M.

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Takahashi, H.

Takara, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Takenaga, K.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Takeshima, K.

Tanaka, A.

Taunay, T. F.

Tkach, R. W.

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuchida, Y.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Tsuritani, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

van den Boom, H. P. A.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van der Tol, J.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R. G. H.

Veljanovski, V.

Wada, M.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Wale, M.

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Wilkinson, T. D.

Winfield, R.

Winzer, P.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
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Winzer, P. J.

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, E. C. Burrows, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “WDM/SDM transmission of 10 x 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK over 2688-km 7-core fiber with a per-fiber net aggregate spectral-efficiency distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz,” Opt. Express 20(2), 706–711 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Winzer, “Energy-Efficient Optical Transport Capacity Scaling Through Spatial Multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 851–853 (2011).
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R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Wood, W.

Xie, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
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Yamada, M.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

Yan, M. F.

Yano, Y.

Yerolatsitis, S.

Yoo, S. J. B.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

Zhu, B.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

P. J. Winzer, “Energy-Efficient Optical Transport Capacity Scaling Through Spatial Multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 851–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-Based Mode Couplers for Mode-Multiplexed Transmission in Few-Mode Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
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A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, Y. Jung, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Demonstration of a Photonic Integrated Mode Coupler With MDM and WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2039–2042 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, F. Huijskens, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing Prism-Based Three-Spot Mode Couplers for High Capacity MDM/WDM Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

M. Wale, J. Van der Tol, X. Leijtens, N. Grote, H. Ambrosius, M. Schell, D. Robbins, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 187–194 (2011).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (6)

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
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Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems,” Opt. Express 19(26), B952–B957 (2011).
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H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 x 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” Opt. Express 21(1), 789–795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
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S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
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S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, E. C. Burrows, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “WDM/SDM transmission of 10 x 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK over 2688-km 7-core fiber with a per-fiber net aggregate spectral-efficiency distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz,” Opt. Express 20(2), 706–711 (2012).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
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A. D. Ellis, “The nonlinear Shannon limit and the need for new fibres,” in (2012), Vol. 8434, p. 84340H–84340H–10.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM System for Space Division Multiplexing with Spatial Superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. PDP5B.8.
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K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “1.03-Exabit/skm Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, and P. Winzer, “32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013).
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Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OTu3G.3.
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R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, B. Ercan, H. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar Gil, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Photonic-Lantern-Based Mode Multiplexers for Few-Mode-Fiber Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), p. W4J.2.

E. Ip, M. Li, Y.-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, E. Mateo, W. Wood, J. Hu, Y. Yano, and K. Koreshkov, “146λx6x19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10x50-km Spans of Few-Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. PDP5A.2.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (2013), pp. 1–3.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. J. B. Yoo, and A. M. J. Koonen, “A Fully-packaged 3D-waveguide based Dual-Fiber Spatial-Multiplexer with Up-tapered 6-mode Fiber Pigtails,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.1.4.

N. K. Fontaine, “Photonic lantern spatial multiplexers in space-division multiplexing,” in 2013 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (2013), pp. 97–98.

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, and A. Sureka, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

F. M. Soares, K. Janiak, R. G. Broeke, and N. Grote, “Technology development towards a generic InP-based photonic-integration foundry,” in M. F. Costa, ed. (2011), pp. 800111–800111–7.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2012 IEEE (2012), pp. 199–200.

PARADIGM,” http://www.paradigm.jeppix.eu/ .

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the SMUX.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Comparison of the fields of the LP11a mode and push-pull case; (b) 5-spot region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Circuit schematics, (b) SEM image of the region of five grating couplers, (c) image of the packaged SOI-based SMUX.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Excited mode profiles for all spatial modes in two polarizations and (b) insertion loss for LP01 and LP11 modes versus wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic of the 45° vertical mirror; (b) SEM image of a 45° mirror etched on an InP waveguide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Microscope image of an InP-based SMUX circuit; SEM images of the 5-spot region (b) before and (c)-(d) after mirror machining.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The arrangement of 9 spots for selectively exciting each spatial mode.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 CE for (a) LP01 and (b) LP02 modes under LP01 launch condition with α = 0.28 and variation β and γ1.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 CE for (a) LP01 and (b) LP02 modes under LP02 launch condition with α = 0.28 and variation β and γ2.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 CE for (a) LP11a and (b) LP21a modes under corresponding launch condition with variation α and β.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Spots arrangement of a 3-spot SMUX; (b) microscope image of a 3-spot SMUX circuit; SEM images of the 3-spot region (c) before and (d)-(e) after mirror machining.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Spot arrangement and (b) sketch of a 6-core photonic lantern for mode multiplexing.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) Sketch and (b) picture of the fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX realized by 3DW technology.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 High capacity SDM/WDM transmission trials

Equations (6)

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[ F 1 F 2 F N ] F: mode  field = [ γ 1,1 γ 1,2 γ 2,1 γ 2,2 γ 1,N γ 2,N γ N,1 γ N,2 γ N,N ] Γ:  mode conversion [ α 1 0 0 α 2 0 0 0 0 α N ] A:   internal attenuation [ I 1 I 2 I N ] I: launch field
γ i,j = E launch,i * H mode,j dS E launch,i * H launch,i dS E mode,j * H mode,j dS
H=ΓA
CIL= ( λ n 2 ) N
MDL= max( λ n 2 ) min( λ n 2 )
[ F 1 F 2 F N ]=Γ[ I 1 I 2 I N ]=Γ [ F 1 ' F 2 ' F N ' ] F : front-end supermodes

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