Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on-chip programmable filter based on a four-tap finite impulse response structure. The photonic filter is programmable thanks to amplitude and phase modulation of each tap controlled by thermal heaters. We further demonstrate the tunability of the filter central wavelength, bandwidth and variable passband shape. The tuning range of the central wavelength is at least 42% of the free spectral range. The bandwidth tuning range is at least half of the free spectral range. Our scheme has distinct advantages of compactness, capability for integrating with electronics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

P. Orlandi, F. Morichetti, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, P. Bassi, and A. Melloni, “Photonic Integrated Filter With Widely Tunable Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(5), 897–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liao, T. Yang, and J. Dong, “On-chip optical pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Chinese Phys. B 23(7), 073201 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Ultrahigh-efficiency apodized grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2732–2734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Yu and O. Solgaard, “Tunable optical transversal filters based on a Gires-Tournois interferometer with MEMS phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 588–597 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation filter using concatenated chirped long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 197(1-3), 67–71 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, “Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226–230 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

A. Frenkel and C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 615–624 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Stone and L. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23(15), 781–783 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Alaimo, A.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Bai, G.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banwell, T.

Bassi, P.

Belmonte, M.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Bolea, M.

M. Bolea, J. Mora, L. R. Chen, and J. Capmany, “Highly chirped reconfigurable microwave photonic filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1192–1194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bosco, G.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

Capmany, J.

M. Bolea, J. Mora, L. R. Chen, and J. Capmany, “Highly chirped reconfigurable microwave photonic filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1192–1194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carena, A.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, L. R.

M. Bolea, J. Mora, L. R. Chen, and J. Capmany, “Highly chirped reconfigurable microwave photonic filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1192–1194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cigliutti, R.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Curri, V.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Das, M.

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation filter using concatenated chirped long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 197(1-3), 67–71 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, J.

S. Liao, T. Yang, and J. Dong, “On-chip optical pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Chinese Phys. B 23(7), 073201 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Dupuis, N.

Fathelbab, W.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Forghieri, F.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Franzon, P. D.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fraser, E.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frenkel, A.

A. Frenkel and C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 615–624 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gavioli, G.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, D.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, H. F.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

Huang, Y.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H. S.

Kingon, A. I.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, “Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226–230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kwang, I. K.

Lee, D. C.

Li, H.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

S. Liao, T. Yang, and J. Dong, “On-chip optical pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Chinese Phys. B 23(7), 073201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

A. Frenkel and C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 615–624 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L.

Liu, L.

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luff, J. B.

Maria, J.-P.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

Menendez, R.

Mora, J.

M. Bolea, J. Mora, L. R. Chen, and J. Capmany, “Highly chirped reconfigurable microwave photonic filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1192–1194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morichetti, F.

Murray, A. J.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nath, J.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Orlandi, P.

Ou, H.

Peucheret, C.

Piciaccia, S.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

Pu, M.

Qian, W.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shum, P. P.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

K. Yu and O. Solgaard, “Tunable optical transversal filters based on a Gires-Tournois interferometer with MEMS phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 588–597 (2004).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Steer, M. B.

J. Nath, D. Ghosh, J.-P. Maria, A. I. Kingon, W. Fathelbab, P. D. Franzon, and M. B. Steer, “An electronically tunable microstrip bandpass filter using thin-film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) varactors,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech. 53(9), 2707–2712 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stone, J.

J. Stone and L. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23(15), 781–783 (1987).
[Crossref]

Strain, M. J.

Stulz, L.

J. Stone and L. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23(15), 781–783 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation filter using concatenated chirped long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 197(1-3), 67–71 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toliver, P.

Torrengo, E.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, and M. Belmonte, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC(2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Woodward, T. K.

Wu, M. C.

Xu, J.

Y. Jiang, P. P. Shum, P. Zu, J. Zhou, G. Bai, J. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, and S. Wang, “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 5500509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

S. Liao, T. Yang, and J. Dong, “On-chip optical pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Chinese Phys. B 23(7), 073201 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yu, K.

K. Yu and O. Solgaard, “Tunable optical transversal filters based on a Gires-Tournois interferometer with MEMS phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 588–597 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, A.

J. Dong, L. Liu, D. Gao, Y. Yu, A. Zheng, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Compact notch microwave photonic filters using on-chip integrated microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 5500307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed integrated programmable filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated transfer functions of the filter with different Δ φ values of 0 (blue solid line), 0.167π (blue dotted line), 0.286π (red solid line) and 0.87π (red dotted line), respectively, (b) Simulated transfer functions of the filter with bandwidth tunability. The 3dB bandwidths of case 1, case 2 and case 3 are 0.61 nm, 0.38 nm and 0.31 nm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated transfer function of the filter with variable passband shapes. (a) The FSR of the filter is reduced to half of the original one (the amplitude array and phase array of Case4 are [0.8, 0.15, 0.8, 0.225] and [π, 0.99π, 0.207π, 0.248π], respectively), (b) and (c) Ramp-shaped transfer functions (the amplitude arrays and phase arrays of Case5 and Case6 are [0.6, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25], [-0.167π, 0.67π, 1.33π, 0] and [0.85, 1, 0.5, 0.25], [0.25π, −0.455π, 0.91π, −0.63π], respectively).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Metallurgical microscopy image of the programmable filter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured transfer functions of the filter with different voltages on the phase electrode, which match well with the simulated ones in Fig. 2(a), (b) measured spectra of the filter with bandwidth tunability, the 3dB bandwidth of case1, case2 and case3 are 0.61 nm, 0.34 nm and 0.21 nm, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured transfer functions for shape-variable filters. (a) The FSR of the filter is reduced to half of the original one. (b) and (c) Ramp-shaped transfer functions.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H 0 ( ω )= n=1 4 α n e j( nωτ+ ϕ n )
H Δφ ( ω )= n=1 4 α n e j[ n( ωτ+Δφ )+ ϕ n ] = n=1 4 α n e j[ nτ( ω+ Δφ τ )+ ϕ n ] = n=1 4 α n e j[ n ω τ+ ϕ n ] = H 0 ( ω )

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