Abstract

This work presents a novel imaging device based on tomographic reconstruction. Similar in certain aspects to the earlier presented tomographic scanning (TOSCA) principle, it provides several important enhancements. The device described generates a stream of one-dimensional projections from a linear array of thin stripe detectors onto which the (circular) image of the scene is rotated. A two-dimensional image is then reproduced from the one-dimensional signals using tomographic processing techniques. A demonstrator is presented. Various aspects of the design and construction are discussed, and resulting images and movies are presented.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Hovland, “Tomographic scanning imager,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11371–11387 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Hovland, “Construction and demonstration of a multispectral tomographic scanning imager (TOSCA),” Opt. Express 21(4), 4688–4702 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. Hovland, “Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers,” Proc. SPIE 9070, 90700H (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988). http://www.slaney.org/pct/pct-toc.html .
  5. R. N. Bracewell and A. C. Riddle, “Inversion of fan-beam scans in radio astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 150, 427–434 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. T. Herman, Image Reconstructions from Projections (Academic, 1980).
  7. A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): A superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Hovland, “Specialized tomographic scanning imaging seeker,” Proc. SPIE 5778, 725–731 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Hovland, “Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers,” Proc. SPIE 9070, 90700H (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

H. Hovland, “Specialized tomographic scanning imaging seeker,” Proc. SPIE 5778, 725–731 (2005).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): A superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

R. N. Bracewell and A. C. Riddle, “Inversion of fan-beam scans in radio astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 150, 427–434 (1967).
[Crossref]

Andersen, A. H.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): A superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell and A. C. Riddle, “Inversion of fan-beam scans in radio astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 150, 427–434 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hovland, H.

H. Hovland, “Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers,” Proc. SPIE 9070, 90700H (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hovland, “Construction and demonstration of a multispectral tomographic scanning imager (TOSCA),” Opt. Express 21(4), 4688–4702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hovland, “Tomographic scanning imager,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11371–11387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hovland, “Specialized tomographic scanning imaging seeker,” Proc. SPIE 5778, 725–731 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kak, A. C.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): A superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riddle, A. C.

R. N. Bracewell and A. C. Riddle, “Inversion of fan-beam scans in radio astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 150, 427–434 (1967).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. N. Bracewell and A. C. Riddle, “Inversion of fan-beam scans in radio astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 150, 427–434 (1967).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Hovland, “Specialized tomographic scanning imaging seeker,” Proc. SPIE 5778, 725–731 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Hovland, “Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers,” Proc. SPIE 9070, 90700H (2014).
[Crossref]

Ultrason. Imaging (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): A superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988). http://www.slaney.org/pct/pct-toc.html .

G. T. Herman, Image Reconstructions from Projections (Academic, 1980).

Supplementary Material (8)

» Media 1: MP4 (5892 KB)     
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» Media 5: MP4 (7287 KB)     
» Media 6: MP4 (12801 KB)     
» Media 7: MP4 (10107 KB)     
» Media 8: MP4 (3194 KB)     

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) TOSCA imaging: A thin line detector (yellow line) scans across the image of the scene, the latter being restricted by an aperture. Alternatively, an array can replace the single line detector. The scan is repeated at different angles. (b) Conical scan TOSCA working principle used in the demonstrator presented in [2, 3]. The mirrors (green) and the aperture (red) rotate as a unit around the optical axis of the incoming light. The image orientation remains fixed relative to the reticle, therefore the thin slits scan the image at regular angular intervals. (c) Reticle pattern and moving aperture layout. The aperture (in red), defining the field of view, moves in a circle. The use of an aperture enables the use of a single detector element to make all the angular scans without aliasing as only one slit transmits light from the scene to the detector at any time. All images are reproduced from [2].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spin scan TOSCA imaging: A rotating image of the scene is projected onto a linear detector array. This example features the use of three rotating plane mirrors and a lens. The mirrors (yellow) that flip the image of the scene rotate as a unit with respect to the scene, while the detector array remains stationary.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Alternative TOSCA spin scan optical configurations: (a) Rotating detector array. (b) An odd number of reflecting, rotating planes, for example a dove prism (or three reflective mirrors as in Fig. 2). (c) A toroidal primary mirror facing a secondary toroidal or cylindrical mirror. A similar effect can be obtained using thick refractive optics, with one toroidal front surface and one toroidal or cylindrical back surface. (d) A similar realisation using a combination of two cylindrical lenses and one spherical lens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated high resolution spin scan TOSCA reconstruction to highlight errors related to spin speed errors. (a) Normal reconstruction with 299 angular scans. (b) Reconstruction with a constant, 10% speed error (too high). (c) Reconstruction with a sinusoidally varying phase shift in the scan speed. (d) Reconstruction with the camera misaligned with the rotating optics, orthogonally to the detector orientation. Reconstruction with nonuniform gain (e) and offset (f).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental spin scan TOSCA camera setup. The main components are the step motor (black, left), the 32 × 32 pixel FPA camera (blue, right), and the rotating optical unit with the three mirrors is in the centre. The optical unit features a counterweight to minimise vibrations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cardboard Halloween mask target used in the experiments.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Recording of a 5 mm diameter pinhole with spin scan TOSCA imager (Media 1). A 300°C black body is behind the pinhole. (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot before software binning to the linear format. One such image is used per angular scan step. The scene image is rotated relative to the FPA at each scan. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal variation in the total scene (temporal unit: angular scans).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Double pinhole recording (Media 2). The experiment is similar to that in Fig. 7, but here the target consists of two 5 mm diameter pinholes backlit with a 300°C blackbody. (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal total scene variation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Double pinhole recording, similar to that in Fig. 8, but with one pinhole covered with an uncoated germanium substrate (Media 3). (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal variation in the scene.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Recording of Halloween mask backlit by a 300°C blackbody (Media 4). (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal total scene variation. The video associated to Figs. 10-14 shows the effect of scene dynamics (rotation).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Recoding of Halloween mask target backlit by halogen lamp illuminated copying paper (Media 5). (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal total scene variation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Recording of Halloween mask target backlit by a 300°C blackbody as in Fig. 10, but with an uncoated germanium substrate covering the nose (Media 6). (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal variation in the total scene.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Recording of Halloween mask with a germanium nose as in Fig. 11, but now using 199 angular scans (Media 7). (a) 32 × 32 pixel FPA snapshot. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 pixel diameter aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from 99 filtered back projections. (f) Normalised temporal variation in the total scene.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Recording of Halloween mask with a germanium nose as in Fig. 12, but using two sets of 199 angular scans, shifted by 99 FPA frames (Media 8). (a) 32 × 64 pixel fusion of two interleaved 32 × 32 pixel FPA frames, separated by a ~180° field of view rotation. (b) Columnwise sum of FPA pixels inside a 32 by 64 pixel diameter elliptic aperture. (c) Ramp filtered detector signal. (d) Back projection of the filtered angular scan. (e) TOSCA image reconstructed from two 199 filtered back projections, separated by 100 angular scans. (f) Normalised temporal variation in the total scene. The behaviour is peculiar in the beginning due to the 100 sample shift.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 TOSCA reconstructions of Halloween mask with 32 elements and a varying number of angular scans: (a) 3 scans, (b) 5 scans, (c) 9 scans, (d) 11 scans, (e) 33 scans and (f) 99 scans.

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