Abstract

The effect of cross-regional or cross-cultural differences on color appearance ratings and memory colors of familiar objects was investigated in seven different countries/regions – Belgium, Hungary, Brazil, Colombia, Taiwan, China and Iran. In each region the familiar objects were presented on a calibrated monitor in over 100 different colors to a test panel of observers that were asked to rate the similarity of the presented object color with respect to what they thought the object looks like in reality (memory color). For each object and region the mean observer ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function. A statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between the region average observers and the global average observer obtained by pooling the data from all regions. However, the effect size of geographical region or culture was found to be small. In fact, the differences between the region average observers and the global average observer were found to of the same magnitude or smaller than the typical within region inter-observer variability. Thus, although statistical differences in color appearance ratings and memory between regions were found, regional impact is not likely to be of practical importance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

C. Sik-Lányi, “Styles or cultural background does influence the colors of virtual reality games?” Acta Polytechnica Hungarica 11, 97–119 (2014).

2013 (2)

M. Vurro, Y. Z. Ling, and A. C. Hurlbert, “Memory color of natural familiar objects: Effects of surface texture and 3-D shape,” J. Vis. 13(7), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kanematsu and D. H. Brainard, “No measured effect of a familiar contextual object on color constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 39, 347–359 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. J. M. Granzier and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of memory color on color constancy for unknown colored objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 3, 190–215 (2012).

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, “Evaluation of color-difference formulae for different color-difference magnitudes,” Color Res. Appl. 37(5), 316–325 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2007 (1)

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. C. Hurlbert and Y. Ling, “If it's a banana, it must be yellow: The role of memory colors in color constancy,” J. Vis. 5(8), 787 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Fernandez, M. D. Fairchild, and K. Braun, “Analysis of observer and cultural variability while generating “preferred” color reproductions of pictorial images,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 96–104 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. Shoyama, Y. Tochihara, and J. Kim, “Japanese and Korean ideas about clothing colors for elderly people: Intercountry and intergenerational differences,” Color Res. Appl. 28(2), 139–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Color memory for various sky, skin, and plant colors: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference Index for Japanese Complexion Color under Illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 54 (1998).

1996 (1)

M. Saito, “Comparative studies on color preference in Japan and other Asian regions, with special emphasis on the preference for white,” Color Res. Appl. 21(1), 35–49 (1996).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34(4), 363–370 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

P. E. Shrout and J. L. Fleiss, “Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability,” Psychol. Bull. 86(2), 420–428 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “A Validation of the Color-Preference Index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

A. Choungourian, “Color preferences and cultural variation,” Percept. Mot. Skills 26(3), 1203–1206 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

1962 (1)

C. J. Bartleson and C. P. Bray, “On the preferred reproduction of flesh, blue-sky, and green-grass colors,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 6, 19–25 (1962).

1961 (2)

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

1960 (1)

1959 (2)

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

1957 (1)

1951 (1)

J. S. Bruner, L. Postman, and J. Rodrigues, “Expectation and the perception of color,” Am. J. Psychol. 64(2), 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1939 (1)

K. Duncker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52(2), 255–265 (1939).
[Crossref]

Alquié, G.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baldoví, R.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bartleson, C. J.

C. J. Bartleson and C. P. Bray, “On the preferred reproduction of flesh, blue-sky, and green-grass colors,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 6, 19–25 (1962).

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

C. J. Bartleson, “Memory colors of familiar objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50(1), 73–77 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berche, S.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Billger, M.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blommaert, F. J. J.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bodrogi, P.

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Color memory for various sky, skin, and plant colors: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boust, C.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brainard, D. H.

E. Kanematsu and D. H. Brainard, “No measured effect of a familiar contextual object on color constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 39, 347–359 (2013).
[PubMed]

Braun, K.

S. Fernandez, M. D. Fairchild, and K. Braun, “Analysis of observer and cultural variability while generating “preferred” color reproductions of pictorial images,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 96–104 (2005).

Bray, C. P.

C. J. Bartleson and C. P. Bray, “On the preferred reproduction of flesh, blue-sky, and green-grass colors,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 6, 19–25 (1962).

Brettel, H.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bruner, J. S.

J. S. Bruner, L. Postman, and J. Rodrigues, “Expectation and the perception of color,” Am. J. Psychol. 64(2), 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnham, R. W.

Caivano, J. L.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-S.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choungourian, A.

A. Choungourian, “Color preferences and cultural variation,” Percept. Mot. Skills 26(3), 1203–1206 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, J. R.

Cui, G.

de Fez, M. D.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

de Ridder, H.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duncker, K.

K. Duncker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52(2), 255–265 (1939).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M. D.

S. Fernandez, M. D. Fairchild, and K. Braun, “Analysis of observer and cultural variability while generating “preferred” color reproductions of pictorial images,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 96–104 (2005).

Fernandez, S.

S. Fernandez, M. D. Fairchild, and K. Braun, “Analysis of observer and cultural variability while generating “preferred” color reproductions of pictorial images,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 96–104 (2005).

Fleiss, J. L.

P. E. Shrout and J. L. Fleiss, “Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability,” Psychol. Bull. 86(2), 420–428 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.-P.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

García, P. A.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

J. J. M. Granzier and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of memory color on color constancy for unknown colored objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 3, 190–215 (2012).

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gómez-Robledo, L.

Granzier, J. J. M.

J. J. M. Granzier and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of memory color on color constancy for unknown colored objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 3, 190–215 (2012).

Guan, S.-S.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hansen, T.

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansuebsai, A.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference Index for Japanese Complexion Color under Illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 54 (1998).

Hinks, D.

Hu, N.-C.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huertas, R.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hurlbert, A. C.

M. Vurro, Y. Z. Ling, and A. C. Hurlbert, “Memory color of natural familiar objects: Effects of surface texture and 3-D shape,” J. Vis. 13(7), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Hurlbert and Y. Ling, “If it's a banana, it must be yellow: The role of memory colors in color constancy,” J. Vis. 5(8), 787 (2005).
[Crossref]

Izadan, H.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

Kajiwara, K.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kanematsu, E.

E. Kanematsu and D. H. Brainard, “No measured effect of a familiar contextual object on color constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 39, 347–359 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kim, C. Y.

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Shoyama, Y. Tochihara, and J. Kim, “Japanese and Korean ideas about clothing colors for elderly people: Intercountry and intergenerational differences,” Color Res. Appl. 28(2), 139–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y.

A. C. Hurlbert and Y. Ling, “If it's a banana, it must be yellow: The role of memory colors in color constancy,” J. Vis. 5(8), 787 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y. Z.

M. Vurro, Y. Z. Ling, and A. C. Hurlbert, “Memory color of natural familiar objects: Effects of surface texture and 3-D shape,” J. Vis. 13(7), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lis, M. J.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

Melgosa, M.

Newhall, S. M.

Olkkonen, M.

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, L.-C.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, D.-S.

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Carpinell, J.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Postman, L.

J. S. Bruner, L. Postman, and J. Rodrigues, “Expectation and the perception of color,” Am. J. Psychol. 64(2), 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, K.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ridder, H.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, J.

J. S. Bruner, L. Postman, and J. Rodrigues, “Expectation and the perception of color,” Am. J. Psychol. 64(2), 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronnier Luo, M.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saito, M.

M. Saito, “Comparative studies on color preference in Japan and other Asian regions, with special emphasis on the preference for white,” Color Res. Appl. 21(1), 35–49 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

Sato, T.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scalzo, M.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shamey, R.

Shoyama, S.

S. Shoyama, Y. Tochihara, and J. Kim, “Japanese and Korean ideas about clothing colors for elderly people: Intercountry and intergenerational differences,” Color Res. Appl. 28(2), 139–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shrout, P. E.

P. E. Shrout and J. L. Fleiss, “Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability,” Psychol. Bull. 86(2), 420–428 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sik-Lányi, C.

C. Sik-Lányi, “Styles or cultural background does influence the colors of virtual reality games?” Acta Polytechnica Hungarica 11, 97–119 (2014).

Siple, P.

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34(4), 363–370 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smet, K. A. G.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soriano, J. C.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

Springer, R. M.

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34(4), 363–370 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, P.-L.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tarczali, T.

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Color memory for various sky, skin, and plant colors: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, “A Validation of the Color-Preference Index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

Tochihara, Y.

S. Shoyama, Y. Tochihara, and J. Kim, “Japanese and Korean ideas about clothing colors for elderly people: Intercountry and intergenerational differences,” Color Res. Appl. 28(2), 139–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

Treméau, A.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Valldeperas, J.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Viénot, F.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vurro, M.

M. Vurro, Y. Z. Ling, and A. C. Hurlbert, “Memory color of natural familiar objects: Effects of surface texture and 3-D shape,” J. Vis. 13(7), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, S.

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, “Evaluation of color-difference formulae for different color-difference magnitudes,” Color Res. Appl. 37(5), 316–325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woodcock, A.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xin, J. H.

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, “Evaluation of color-difference formulae for different color-difference magnitudes,” Color Res. Appl. 37(5), 316–325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yano, T.

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference Index for Japanese Complexion Color under Illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 54 (1998).

Yendrikhovskij, S. N.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Acta Polytechnica Hungarica (1)

C. Sik-Lányi, “Styles or cultural background does influence the colors of virtual reality games?” Acta Polytechnica Hungarica 11, 97–119 (2014).

Am. J. Psychol. (2)

J. S. Bruner, L. Postman, and J. Rodrigues, “Expectation and the perception of color,” Am. J. Psychol. 64(2), 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Duncker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52(2), 255–265 (1939).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (12)

E. Kanematsu and D. H. Brainard, “No measured effect of a familiar contextual object on color constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 39, 347–359 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldoví, and J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of color emotion for two-color combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-P. Gao, J. H. Xin, T. Sato, A. Hansuebsai, M. Scalzo, K. Kajiwara, S.-S. Guan, J. Valldeperas, M. J. Lis, and M. Billger, “Analysis of cross-cultural color emotion,” Color Res. Appl. 32(3), 223–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Saito, “Comparative studies on color preference in Japan and other Asian regions, with special emphasis on the preference for white,” Color Res. Appl. 21(1), 35–49 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Tarczali, D.-S. Park, P. Bodrogi, and C. Y. Kim, “Long-term memory colors of Korean and Hungarian observers,” Color Res. Appl. 31(3), 176–183 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Color memory for various sky, skin, and plant colors: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Shoyama, Y. Tochihara, and J. Kim, “Japanese and Korean ideas about clothing colors for elderly people: Intercountry and intergenerational differences,” Color Res. Appl. 28(2), 139–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, “Evaluation of color-difference formulae for different color-difference magnitudes,” Color Res. Appl. 37(5), 316–325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Energy Build. (1)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory color quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Illum. Eng. (5)

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

W. A. Thornton, “A Validation of the Color-Preference Index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. J. M. Granzier and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of memory color on color constancy for unknown colored objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 3, 190–215 (2012).

J. Imaging Sci. (1)

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, G. Alquié, and S. Berche, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Fernandez, M. D. Fairchild, and K. Braun, “Analysis of observer and cultural variability while generating “preferred” color reproductions of pictorial images,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 96–104 (2005).

J. Light Vis. Env. (1)

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference Index for Japanese Complexion Color under Illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 54 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (2)

M. Vurro, Y. Z. Ling, and A. C. Hurlbert, “Memory color of natural familiar objects: Effects of surface texture and 3-D shape,” J. Vis. 13(7), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Hurlbert and Y. Ling, “If it's a banana, it must be yellow: The role of memory colors in color constancy,” J. Vis. 5(8), 787 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

T. Hansen, M. Olkkonen, S. Walter, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Memory modulates color appearance,” Nat. Neurosci. 9(11), 1367–1368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percept. Mot. Skills (1)

A. Choungourian, “Color preferences and cultural variation,” Percept. Mot. Skills 26(3), 1203–1206 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34(4), 363–370 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

Photon. Sci. Eng. (2)

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

C. J. Bartleson and C. P. Bray, “On the preferred reproduction of flesh, blue-sky, and green-grass colors,” Photon. Sci. Eng. 6, 19–25 (1962).

Psychol. Bull. (1)

P. E. Shrout and J. L. Fleiss, “Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability,” Psychol. Bull. 86(2), 420–428 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

H. Motulsky and A. Christopoulos, Fitting Models to Biological Data using Linear and Nonlinear Regression: A Practical Guide to Curve Fitting (Oxford University, 2004).

CIE16x-2004, “A review of chromatic adaptation transforms,” (CIE, Vienna, 2004).

Y. Ling, “The color perception of natural objects: familiarity, constancy and memory,” in School of Biology and Psychology(University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne: 2005), p. 173.

Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Springer-Verlag, 1920).

S. Xue, M. Tan, A. McNamara, J. Dorsey, and H. Rushmeier, “Exploring the use of memory colors for image enhancement,” in SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XIX (2014), pp. 901411–901411–901410.

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Investigation of Color Memory,” in Color Image Science: Exploiting Digital Media, L. W. MacDonald, and M. R. Luo, eds. (John Wiley & Sons Limited, 2002), pp. 23–48.

H. Zeng and R. Luo, “Modeling memory color region for preference color reproduction,” in SPIE: Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications (2010), pp. 752808–752808–752811.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The eleven familiar ‘objects’ for which memory colors were determined. Note that images CS and AS are blurred for publication purposes only, no blurring was present during the experiments.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Monitor gamut and white point in the CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram of the participating laboratories. The common gamut is also plotted.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Top left and top right: two examples of a typical screen as seen by a test subject during the experiment. Bottom: a close up of the continuous graphical rating scale.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Average color appearance rating distributions in the CIE 1976 u’v’ chromaticity diagram for “Asian Skin” for all regions and for all regions pooled. The black dots are the test chromaticity points.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A 3D plot of the fitted models for “Asian skin” for all regions. The fit to the pooled region data is also shown.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The 1d-elliptical contours – at a unit Mahalanobis distance – of the fitted bivariate Gaussian models (for the average observer) for each of the 7 regions and 11 objects. The 1d-elliptical contour of model fitted to the pooled data (across regions) is plotted as a dashed black line.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The 1d-elliptical contours of the bivariate Gaussian models fitted to the individual observer data for ‘Asian Skin’ (colored solid lines), fitted to the average ratings (across observers) of each region (dotted black line) and fitted to the pooled (across regions) ratings (dashed black line).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Region average memory colors for “Asian Skin”. The memory color for the global observer (all regions pooled) is also shown. The last subplot displays the CIE u’v’ chromaticity coordinates of the different displayed memory colors and the 1d-elliptical contour of the global observer. The display colors were calculated using srgb color space. Note that the images are blurred only for publication purposes, no blurring was present during the experiments.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Region average memory colors for a “Green Apple”. The memory color for the global observer (all regions pooled) is also shown. The last subplot displays the CIE u’v’ chromaticity coordinates of the different displayed memory colors and the 1d-elliptical contour of the global observer. The display colors were calculated using srgb color space.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Region-average memory color chromaticities. The 1d-elliptical contour and memory color of the global average observer is also plotted.

Tables (10)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Details of the Test Panels in Each Region

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Table 2 Monitor Details: Type, Brand, Gamut, the 10° CIE 1976 u’v’ Chromaticity Coordinates and Y10 Luminance of the Monitor White Point; Mean, Standard Deviation (SD) and Maximum Calibration Error ΔE*Lab, for a Set of 40 Random Test Chromaticities within the Monitor Gamut

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean Luminance Values (Y10 in cd/m2) and the Standard Deviation (SD) for the Different Object Stimulus Grids

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Table 4 Number of Presented Stimuli per Object for Each Region

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Table 5 Average Intra- and Inter-observer Variabilitya

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Table 6 Goodness-of-fit of the Bivariate Gaussian Model with the Mean Observer Ratings Expressed in STRESS (%) for the Different Regions and Objects*

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Table 7 Details of the Extra-sum-of-squares F-test for the Effect of Geographical Region

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Table 8 Details of the Extra-sum-of-squares F-test for the Effect of Gender

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Table 9 Color Differences – Calculated Using the Mahalanobis Distance Metric – in the CIE 1976 u’v’ Chromaticity Diagram between the Region Average Memory Colors and the Global Average Memory Colors*

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Table 10 Model parameters for the different objects and countries.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d( u 10 ' , v 10 ' )= { [ ( u 10 ' v 10 ' )( a 3 a 4 ) ] T [ a 1 a 5 a 5 a 2 ][ ( u 10 ' v 10 ' )( a 3 a 4 ) ] } 1 2
R( u 10 ' , v 10 ' )= a 7 + a 6 e 1 2 d ( u 10 ' , v 10 ' ) 2
F= ( S S null S S alt ) / ( D F null D F alt ) S S alt / D F alt

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