Abstract

Three-photon absorption (3PA) has been observed as the dominant mechanism for nonlinear absorption in wide-bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H-W) at 1.55μm. The nonlinear index n2 and 3PA coefficient were measured to be 22 × 10−17m2/W and 5.0 × 10−26 m3/W2 respectively at 1.55μm by using the z-scan method. This indicates that the figure of merit (FOM) of this material is intensity dependent. A value FOM>60 is predicted at intensities below 0.5 GW/cm2 which is the maximum practical intensity for high-bit-rate (>160GB/s) all-optical signal processing. The nonlinear phase change in a-Si:H-W has been compared with other common nonlinear materials (c-Si, As2S3, Ge11.5As24Se64.5) for a 2cm long waveguide with a-Si:H-W showing the greatest potential for integrated devices for all-optical processing with a high nonlinear index and negligible nonlinear absorption at intensities < 0.5GW/cm2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gaur, D. Sharma, N. Singh, B. P. Malik, and A. Gaur, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction in direct and indirect band gap crystals by Z-scan method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 97, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (9)

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W–1m–1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8998–9005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16826–16831 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon nanowire based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (7)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1498–1503 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

H. S. Brandi and C. B. Araujos, “Multiphoton absorption-coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C Solid State 16(30), 5929–5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abe, I.

R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aitchison, J. S.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alhemyari, K.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
[Crossref]

Andrejco, M. J.

Araujos, C. B.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. Araujos, “Multiphoton absorption-coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C Solid State 16(30), 5929–5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ayotte, S.

H. S. Rong, S. Ayotte, W. Mathlouthi, and M. Paniccia, “Mid-span dispersion compensation via optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguides,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol 1–8, 2899–2901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Badding, J. V.

Baets, R.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baldini, E.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ballesteros, G. C.

Baril, N. F.

Ben Bakir, B.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

Brandi, H. S.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. Araujos, “Multiphoton absorption-coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C Solid State 16(30), 5929–5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Brun, M.

Bulla, D.

Bulla, D. A.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busse, L.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carletti, L.

Choi, D. Y.

X. Gai, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Interplay between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2777–2784 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W–1m–1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
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F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (gamma = 10 /W/m) As2S3) chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
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S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
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Clemmen, S.

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M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
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M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
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F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (gamma = 10 /W/m) As2S3) chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
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S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
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Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
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Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
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X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
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Husko, C.

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Kamikawachi, R. C.

R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
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K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
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K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
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J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
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K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
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Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
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C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
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Lefrancois, S.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
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X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
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M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

R. Neo, J. Schröder, Y. Paquot, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Phase-sensitive amplification of light in a χ(3) photonic chip using a dispersion engineered chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7926–7933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Interplay between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2777–2784 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W–1m–1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (gamma = 10 /W/m) As2S3) chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

Madden, S.

R. Neo, J. Schröder, Y. Paquot, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Phase-sensitive amplification of light in a χ(3) photonic chip using a dispersion engineered chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7926–7933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gai, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Interplay between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2777–2784 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W–1m–1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (gamma = 10 /W/m) As2S3) chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madden, S. J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, B. P.

P. Gaur, D. Sharma, N. Singh, B. P. Malik, and A. Gaur, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction in direct and indirect band gap crystals by Z-scan method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 97, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martí, J.

Massar, S.

Mathlouthi, W.

H. S. Rong, S. Ayotte, W. Mathlouthi, and M. Paniccia, “Mid-span dispersion compensation via optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguides,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol 1–8, 2899–2901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matres, J.

Mehta, P.

Mendonca, C. R.

D. S. Corrêa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
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Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Minzioni, P.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Misoguti, L.

D. S. Corrêa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Monat, C.

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Morthier, G.

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R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
[Crossref]

Narayanan, K.

Neo, R.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
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Nicoletti, S.

Ogasawara, T.

Ogusu, K.

Okano, M.

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X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Oxenløwe, L. K.

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

Y. H. Kuo, H. S. Rong, V. Sih, S. B. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, S. Ayotte, W. Mathlouthi, and M. Paniccia, “Mid-span dispersion compensation via optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguides,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol 1–8, 2899–2901 (2008).
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Parmigiani, F.

Paterno, A. S.

R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
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Pearl, S.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131102 (2008).

Pelusi, M.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pelusi, M. D.

Petropoulos, P.

Pinto, J. L.

R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
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Prasad, A.

Preble, S. F.

Pu, M.

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rey, I. H.

Rode, A. V.

Roelkens, G.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rong, H. S.

Y. H. Kuo, H. S. Rong, V. Sih, S. B. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, S. Ayotte, W. Mathlouthi, and M. Paniccia, “Mid-span dispersion compensation via optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguides,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol 1–8, 2899–2901 (2008).
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Rotenberg, N.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131102 (2008).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Sakakibara, Y.

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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sazio, P. J. A.

Schröder, J.

Selvaraja, S. K.

Sharma, D.

P. Gaur, D. Sharma, N. Singh, B. P. Malik, and A. Gaur, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction in direct and indirect band gap crystals by Z-scan method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 97, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
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Sheikbahae, M.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
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Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Shimizu, I.

K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
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Shoji, Y.

Sih, V.

Singh, N.

P. Gaur, D. Sharma, N. Singh, B. P. Malik, and A. Gaur, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction in direct and indirect band gap crystals by Z-scan method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 97, 45–49 (2012).
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Smith, A.

Stegeman, G. I.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
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V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 14(20), 1140–1142 (1989).
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Syvridis, D.

Ta’eed, V. G.

Takayama, K.

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C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131102 (2008).

Vanstryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
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Vo, T. D.

B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon nanowire based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010).
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M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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Wang, R. P.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, S. B.

Yu, Y.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
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Zha, C. J.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pearl, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Three photon absorption in silicon for 2300-3300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131102 (2008).

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheikbahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Alhemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to 3-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(2), 147–149 (1994).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Wavelength conversion of high-speed phase and intensity modulated signals using a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 3–5 (2010).
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Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Fukutani, M. Kanbe, W. Futako, B. Kaplan, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, and I. Shimizu, “Band gap tuning of a-Si: H from 1.55 eV to 2.10 eV by intentionally promoting structural relaxation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 63–67 (1998).
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X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. S. Corrêa, L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, I. Cohanoschi, F. E. Hernandez, and C. R. Mendonca, “Z-scan theoretical analysis for three-, four- and five-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 277(2), 440–445 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. C. Kamikawachi, I. Abe, A. S. Paterno, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, J. L. Pinto, and J. L. Fabris, “Determination of thermo-optic coefficient in liquids with fiber Bragg grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 621–625 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (19)

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
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J. Matres, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Gautier, J. M. Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “High nonlinear figure-of-merit amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3932–3940 (2013).
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R. Neo, J. Schröder, Y. Paquot, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Phase-sensitive amplification of light in a χ(3) photonic chip using a dispersion engineered chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7926–7933 (2013).
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M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16683–16689 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, H. S. Rong, V. Sih, S. B. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
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Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
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A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
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K. Ogusu and K. Takayama, “Optical bistability in photonic crystal microrings with nonlinear dielectric materials,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7525–7539 (2008).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (gamma = 10 /W/m) As2S3) chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
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F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineered As2S3 planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3514–3520 (2009).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
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K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8998–9005 (2010).
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K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
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P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16826–16831 (2010).
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X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W–1m–1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Gaur, D. Sharma, N. Singh, B. P. Malik, and A. Gaur, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction in direct and indirect band gap crystals by Z-scan method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 97, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. R. R., “Numerical Methods in Photonics Lecture Notes,” (University of Colorado).

H. S. Rong, S. Ayotte, W. Mathlouthi, and M. Paniccia, “Mid-span dispersion compensation via optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguides,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol 1–8, 2899–2901 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characterization of the material properties 1(a) The FTIR spectrum from a 200nm thick a-Si:H-W film on SiO2 with indication of the position of the Si-H peak at ~2000cm−1 and Si-H2 peak at ~2100cm−1. 1(b) IR camera image of loss streak from a 200nm a-Si/SiO2 and 1(c) the data extracted from this image fitted with a linear decay corresponding to a loss of 0.2dB/cm. 1(d) High resolution TEM image of the top surface of the a-Si:H-W film (with carbon coating to avoid charging), and 1(e) the bottom interface with SiO2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reciprocal transmission curves. (a) and (b) are curves of 1/T vs. I and 1/T2 vs. I2 respectively for case of 2PA (red) and 3PA (black) for a Gaussian beam and Gaussian pulse. (c) and (d) are curves of 1/T vs. I and 1/T2 vs. I2 respectively for the z-scan measurements at 1.15μm (blue), 1.25μm (red), 1.3μm (green) and 1.55μm (black). The insets in (c) and (d) magnify these plots for intensities less than 100GW/cm2. From these insets, it is apparent that 2PA dominates absorption at 1.3μm at relatively low intensity whilst 3PA dominates the absorption at 1.3μm at higher intensity (see text).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Z-scan traces at 1.55μm. (a) The closed aperture z-scan data (circles) fitted with the numerical model (solid lines) for different intensities at 1.55μm. (b) The open aperture z-scan data (circles) fitted to the numerical model (solid line) for different intensities at 1.55μm. Three different intensities are shown: 28GW/cm2 (black), 84GW/cm2 (green) and 170GW/cm2 (red).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The dispersion of the nonlinearities deduced from the experiments. (a) n2 as a function of wavelength. (b) σFCA as a function of wavelength. The red lines are only used as guides for the eye.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The FOM3PA as a function of intensity for a-Si:H-W. The dashed lines indicate FOM2PA for As2S3 [8], Ge11.5 [9, 10], a-Si:H-N [2, 3], and c-Si [7] respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Nonlinear phase change. (a) The nonlinear phase change as a function of intensity for a CW laser and a 2cm long waveguide. Regime A is defined by the maximum practical intensity for high-bit-rate processing (>160Gb/s). (b) The nonlinear phase change as a function of intensity for a 2ps pulse from a 2cm long waveguide. Regime B is defined by the practical intensity for low duty cycle but high peak power processing. The black solid is for α-Si:H-W excluding FCA; the black dashed is for α-Si:H-W with FCA; the red solid is for α-Si:H-N excluding FCA; the red dashed is for α-Si:H-N with FCA; the green solid line is for c-Si with FCA; the light blue line is for As2S3; and the dark blue line is for Ge11.5.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposition condition

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Table 2 The fitted values of β3PA, β2PA, n2, σFCA, σFCN for a-Si:H-W at 1.15μm, 1.25μm, 1.3μm and 1.55μm.

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Table 3 The material parameters used in calculation of the nonlinear phase change.

Equations (4)

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1 T = I in I out =exp(αL)(1+ L 2eff β 2 I in ).
1 T 2 = I in 2 I out 2 =exp(2αL)(1+2 L 3eff β 3 I in 2 ).
N c t =G N c τ 0 ,
G= 1 ω ( β 2PA 2 I 2 β 3PA 3 I 3 ),

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