Abstract

In a passive optical network (PON), energy conservation is an important system design goal to satisfy the global demands for an energy efficient green network. In this paper, we show that a separate period control for the transmitter and receiver of an optical transceiver can result in better power saving performances in PON systems. Then, we propose a power saving mode called the Dual Cyclic Sleep (DCS) mode. We have implemented the DCS mode in an ETRI XG-PON system and conducted experiments to show the power saving efficiency of the proposed DCS mode. The results indicate that the DCS mode provides higher power saving efficiency than the doze and cyclic sleep modes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(13), 2391–2403 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Otaka, “Power saving ad-hoc report,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).
  3. “IEEE Std 802.3az : energy-efficient Ethernet,” 2010.
  4. “ITU-T recommendation G.987 series : 10-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (XG-PON),” 2010.
  5. “IEEE Std P1904.1-conformance01 standard for conformance test procedures for service interoperability in Ethernet passive optical networks,”
  6. “Code of conduct on energy consumption of broadband equipment version 4.1,” European Commission Joint Research Centre, Jan.2013.
  7. B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag. 25(2), 20–24 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks: progress, efficiency and challenges,” Opt. Express 20(26), B52–B63 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. Dinh and A. Walid, “Power saving protocol for 10G-EPON systems: a proposal and performance evaluations,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3135–3140.
  11. S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.
  12. L. Shi, B. Mukherjee, and S.-S. Lee, “Energy-efficient PON with sleep-mode ONU: progress, challenges, and solutions,” IEEE Network Mag. 26(2), 36–41 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Van Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. Van Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Kani, “Power saving techniques and mechanisms for optical access networks systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 563–570 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. “ITU-T series G supplement 45: GPON power conservation,” 2009.
  17. “ITU-T recommendation G.988: ONU management and control interface (OMCI),” 2010.
  18. J. Mandin, “EPON powersaving via sleep mode,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).
  19. H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.
  20. M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).
  22. N. Dinh and H. Lim, “Power saving mechanism with delay bound for mobile WiMAX systems,” IET Commun. 5(13), 1854–1859 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Kani, “Power saving techniques and mechanisms for optical access networks systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 563–570 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag. 25(2), 20–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).

N. Dinh and H. Lim, “Power saving mechanism with delay bound for mobile WiMAX systems,” IET Commun. 5(13), 1854–1859 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Afshar, P.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anthapadmanabhan, N.

Ayoubkhan, M.

J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).

Ayre, R.

Baliga, J.

Bang, H.

H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.

Boislaigue, R.

Chow, H.

Colle, D.

Demeester, P.

Dinh, N.

N. Dinh and H. Lim, “Power saving mechanism with delay bound for mobile WiMAX systems,” IET Commun. 5(13), 1854–1859 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Dinh and A. Walid, “Power saving protocol for 10G-EPON systems: a proposal and performance evaluations,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3135–3140.

Dixit, A.

Dupas, A.

Farah, R.

Galaro, J.

Han, M. S.

M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hinton, K.

Hood, D.

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag. 25(2), 20–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kani, J.

Kathuria, J.

J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).

Kazovsky, L. G.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Kim, J.

H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.

Lannoo, B.

Lau, M.

Lee, D. S.

M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-S.

H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, B. Mukherjee, and S.-S. Lee, “Energy-efficient PON with sleep-mode ONU: progress, challenges, and solutions,” IEEE Network Mag. 26(2), 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lim, H.

N. Dinh and H. Lim, “Power saving mechanism with delay bound for mobile WiMAX systems,” IET Commun. 5(13), 1854–1859 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mandin, J.

J. Mandin, “EPON powersaving via sleep mode,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).

Mukherjee, B.

L. Shi, B. Mukherjee, and S.-S. Lee, “Energy-efficient PON with sleep-mode ONU: progress, challenges, and solutions,” IEEE Network Mag. 26(2), 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noor, A.

J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).

Otaka, A.

A. Otaka, “Power saving ad-hoc report,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).

Park, C.-S.

H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.

Pickavet, M.

Qua, G.

Shi, L.

L. Shi, B. Mukherjee, and S.-S. Lee, “Energy-efficient PON with sleep-mode ONU: progress, challenges, and solutions,” IEEE Network Mag. 26(2), 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y.

H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag. 25(2), 20–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sorin, W. V.

Suvakovic, D.

Torfs, G.

Tucker, R. S.

Van Praet, C.

Van Veen, D.

Vetter, P.

Walid, A.

N. Dinh and A. Walid, “Power saving protocol for 10G-EPON systems: a proposal and performance evaluations,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3135–3140.

Wong, S.-W.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Yamashita, S.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Yen, S.-H.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Yin, X.

Yoo, H.

M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

ETRI J. (1)

M. S. Han, H. Yoo, and D. S. Lee, “Development of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for XG-PON,” ETRI J. 35(1), 18–26 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

H. Bang, J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Determination of sleep period for cyclic sleep mode in XG-PON power management,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16(1), 98–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Network Mag. (2)

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag. 25(2), 20–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, B. Mukherjee, and S.-S. Lee, “Energy-efficient PON with sleep-mode ONU: progress, challenges, and solutions,” IEEE Network Mag. 26(2), 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

IET Commun. (1)

N. Dinh and H. Lim, “Power saving mechanism with delay bound for mobile WiMAX systems,” IET Commun. 5(13), 1854–1859 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. (1)

J. Kathuria, M. Ayoubkhan, and A. Noor, “A review of clock gating techniques,” MIT Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. 1(2), 106–114 (2011).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (11)

“ITU-T series G supplement 45: GPON power conservation,” 2009.

“ITU-T recommendation G.988: ONU management and control interface (OMCI),” 2010.

J. Mandin, “EPON powersaving via sleep mode,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).

H. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and C.-S. Park, “Analysis of ONT buffer and power management performance for XG-PON cyclic sleep mode,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3116–3121.

N. Dinh and A. Walid, “Power saving protocol for 10G-EPON systems: a proposal and performance evaluations,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3135–3140.

S.-W. Wong, S.-H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), pp. 1–3.

A. Otaka, “Power saving ad-hoc report,” in IEEE 802.3 Interim Meet., Seoul, Korea, Sep. (2008).

“IEEE Std 802.3az : energy-efficient Ethernet,” 2010.

“ITU-T recommendation G.987 series : 10-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (XG-PON),” 2010.

“IEEE Std P1904.1-conformance01 standard for conformance test procedures for service interoperability in Ethernet passive optical networks,”

“Code of conduct on energy consumption of broadband equipment version 4.1,” European Commission Joint Research Centre, Jan.2013.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram showing the transceiver on-off operation in the doze and cyclic sleep modes
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Timing chart of OLT and ONU
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transceiver on-off operation in the DCS mode
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sleep cycles for the cyclic and DCS modes
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Plots of Pdcs with respect to m for Tc = 100 ms
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Delay for an OLT driven wake-up
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Delay for an ONU driven wake-up
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 ETRI XG-PON system platform
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Power consumption with respect to Tsleep when TC=100 ms
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Power saving efficiency
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 DCS power consumption during the sleep cycles
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Power consumption with respect to m in the DCS mode
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Comparison of delay for ONU driven wake-up

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameter description for the cyclic and DCS modes

Equations (19)

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p k ( τ ) = ( λ τ ) k k ! e λ τ ,
k = 1 p k ( T c ) = 1 p 0 ( T c ) = 1 e λ T c .
p ( n ) = { 1 e λ T c for n = 1 e λ ( n 1 ) T c ( 1 e λ T c ) otherwise .
N s = n = 1 n p ( n ) .
E cyclic = N s ( T aware ( P t x + P r x ) + T sleep P sleep ) ,
P cyclic = E cyclic + T normal P normal N s T c + T normal .
P cyclic = T aware N s ( η t x + η r x ) + T sleep N s η sleep + T normal N s T c + T normal ,
E dcs = T aware ( N s m P t x + N s P r x ) + N s T sleep P sleep .
P dcs = E dcs + T normal P normal N s T c + T normal .
P dcs = T aware ( N s m η t x + N s η r x ) + T sleep N s η sleep + T normal N s T c + T normal .
T d 1 = D func .
T d 2 = T sleep 2 + T set up ,
T cyclic olt = T aware T c T d 1 + T sleep T c T d 2 ,
T dcs olt = T aware m T c T d 1 + m T sleep + ( m 1 ) T aware m T c T d 2 ,
T d 3 = SI BWmap 2 + D func .
T d 4 = SI BWmap 2 + T set up .
T cyclic onu = T aware T c T d 3 + T sleep T c T d 4 .
T dcs onu = T aware m T c T d 3 + m T sleep + ( m 1 ) T aware m T c T d 4 .
ρ = T sleep T aware .

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