Abstract

We present in this work a calculation of the theoretical limits attainable for natural light emulation with regard to the joint optimization of the Luminous Efficacy of Radiation and color fidelity by using multiple reflectance spectra datasets, along with an implementation of a physical device that approaches these limits. A reduced visible spectrum of blackbody radiators is introduced and demonstrated which allows lamps designed to emulate natural light to operate with excellent color fidelity and higher efficiency as compared to full visible spectrum sources. It is shown that even though 3,000K and 5,500K blackbody sources have maximum efficacies of 21 lm/W and 89 lm/W, respectively, reduced-spectrum artificial light sources can exceed those values up to 363 lm/W and 313 lm/W, respectively, while retaining excellent color fidelity. Experimental demonstration approaching these values is accomplished through the design and implementation of a 12-channel light engine which emits arbitrarily-tunable spectra. The color fidelity of the designed spectra is assessed through Color Rendering Maps, showing that color fidelity is preserved uniformly over a large spectral reflectance dataset, unlike other approaches to generate white light.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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Circadian-effect engineering of solid-state lighting spectra for beneficial and tunable lighting

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References

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2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Color. Technol. 127, 75–87 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museum artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. F. Delgado, C. W. Dirk, J. Druzik, and N. WestFall, “Lighting the world’s treasures: approaches to safer museum lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 238–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 354006 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective,” In proceedings of the IEEE,  98, 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Col. Res. Appl. 32, 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. E. Coltrin, J. Y. Tsao, and Y. Ohno, “Limits on the maximum attainable efficiency for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 2–13 (2007).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. W. Brown, J. P. Rice, J. E. Neira, and B. C. Johnson, “Spectrally tunable sources for advanced radiometric applications,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 111, 401–410 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308 (5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward and improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE,  5941, 59411G (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D.H.W. Li and J.C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energ. Buildings 33, 793–803 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. R. Luo, “A review of chromatic adaptation transforms,” Rev. Prog. Color. 30, 77–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Attia, D.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barlier-Salsi, A.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Behar-Cohen, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, J. P. Rice, J. E. Neira, and B. C. Johnson, “Spectrally tunable sources for advanced radiometric applications,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 111, 401–410 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carreras, J.

Cesarini, J. P.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

Cho, J.

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective,” In proceedings of the IEEE,  98, 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. E. Coltrin, J. Y. Tsao, and Y. Ohno, “Limits on the maximum attainable efficiency for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 2–13 (2007).

Coron, G.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museum artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective,” In proceedings of the IEEE,  98, 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward and improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE,  5941, 59411G (2005).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delgado, M. F.

M. F. Delgado, C. W. Dirk, J. Druzik, and N. WestFall, “Lighting the world’s treasures: approaches to safer museum lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 238–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dirk, C. W.

M. F. Delgado, C. W. Dirk, J. Druzik, and N. WestFall, “Lighting the world’s treasures: approaches to safer museum lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 238–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Druzik, J.

M. F. Delgado, C. W. Dirk, J. Druzik, and N. WestFall, “Lighting the world’s treasures: approaches to safer museum lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 238–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Enouf, O.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garcia, M.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Hanselaer, P.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Col. Res. Appl. 32, 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hunt, C. E.

Johnson, B. C.

S. W. Brown, J. P. Rice, J. E. Neira, and B. C. Johnson, “Spectrally tunable sources for advanced radiometric applications,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 111, 401–410 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lam, J.C.

D.H.W. Li and J.C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energ. Buildings 33, 793–803 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lavédrine, B.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museum artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, D.H.W.

D.H.W. Li and J.C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energ. Buildings 33, 793–803 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Color. Technol. 127, 75–87 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, “A review of chromatic adaptation transforms,” Rev. Prog. Color. 30, 77–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Mao, X.

Martinsons, C.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Masuda, O.

Mirhosseini, R.

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nascimento, S.

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Col. Res. Appl. 32, 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neira, J. E.

S. W. Brown, J. P. Rice, J. E. Neira, and B. C. Johnson, “Spectrally tunable sources for advanced radiometric applications,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 111, 401–410 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. E. Coltrin, J. Y. Tsao, and Y. Ohno, “Limits on the maximum attainable efficiency for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 2–13 (2007).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward and improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE,  5941, 59411G (2005).
[Crossref]

Petrulis, A.

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Picaud, S.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Quintero, J.

Quintero, J. M.

Rice, J. P.

S. W. Brown, J. P. Rice, J. E. Neira, and B. C. Johnson, “Spectrally tunable sources for advanced radiometric applications,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 111, 401–410 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

Schubert, M. F.

Shimizu, M.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Col. Res. Appl. 32, 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shioiri, S.

H. Yaguchi, Y. Takahashi, and S. Shioiri, “A proposal of color rendering index based on categorical color names,” in Proceedings of the the Int. Lightning Congress Istanbul, Vol. II, (2001)

Shur, M.

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 354006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. A.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective,” In proceedings of the IEEE,  98, 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smet, K.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour Appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Col. Res. Appl. 36, 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet and L. A. Whitehead, “Consideration of meta–standards for color rendering Metrics,” in Proceedings of the 19th Color Imaging Conference, (I.S.&T. Publ., 2011), pp. 76.

Sudrià, A.

Takahashi, Y.

H. Yaguchi, Y. Takahashi, and S. Shioiri, “A proposal of color rendering index based on categorical color names,” in Proceedings of the the Int. Lightning Congress Istanbul, Vol. II, (2001)

Tanishima, S.

P. Waide and S. Tanishima, Light’s Labour’s Lost: Policies for Energy-efficient Lighting (International Energy Agency, 2006).

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective,” In proceedings of the IEEE,  98, 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. E. Coltrin, J. Y. Tsao, and Y. Ohno, “Limits on the maximum attainable efficiency for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 2–13 (2007).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuzikas, A.

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20, 5356–5367 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 354006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Viénot, F.

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H. Yaguchi, Y. Takahashi, and S. Shioiri, “A proposal of color rendering index based on categorical color names,” in Proceedings of the the Int. Lightning Congress Istanbul, Vol. II, (2001)

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F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light–emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral limits for natural-light emulation. Trade-offs between Ra (left column) and efficacy (central column) in Reduced Visible blackbody spectrum light sources with 3,000K and 5,500K CCTs. The right column gives the score, S, obtained using Equation (1) when a spectrum satisfies the (user-defined) criteria of Ra >90, Efficacy>200 lm/W and Δuv <0.0054
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Limits to photometric properties of natural light. Theoretical maximum achievable efficacy and color-rendering limits for two different scenarios: (a) optimized for highest efficacy and (b) optimized for best color quality, emulating natural light. (Solid and dashed lines are spline interpolations of data, and should be understood as a simple guide to the eye)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Color Rendering Maps (CRM) represented in the CIE 1976 (a*, b*) color space for the best rated (HS) reduced visible spectra with a CCT of 3,000K and 5,500K, an RGB LED based light source with a CCT of 3,000K and finally a triphosphor fluorescent light source with a CCT of 5,500K. Row (a) shows the color fidelity of the light sources tested using 1,269 reflectance spectra of the Munsell Book of Colors. Row (b) uses the Agfa IT8.7 standard while rows (c) and (d) show the color rendering properties evaluated over a large number of reflectance spectra of natural materials such as different woods and leaves (c) and flower leaves (d). CRM (e) uses a comprehensive dataset using thousands of artificially generated smooth reflectance spectra, including reflectance data not occurring in existing man-made or natural materials
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured light engine spectral power distribution (solid line) compared with ideal reduced- spectrum input (dotted line) for 3,000K and 5,500K

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral parameters of best natural–light emulation. Detailed information of Highest Efficacy (HE), Highest Ra (HRa) and Highest Score (HS) spectra

Tables Icon

Table 2 Efficacy and color quality assessment of the real light engine spectra shown in Figure 4 as compared to the best-rated spectra obtained from the calculated theoretical limits

Equations (1)

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S = 1 2 ( R a R a * ) 2 + ( Eff Eff * ) 2

Metrics