Abstract

By utilizing the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, we fabricated a kind of microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) saturable absorber (SA) which has inherent merits of effective and robust properties. We also proposed a newly explanation for the impact of nonlinear effect of SA on the harmonic mode-locking (HML) behavior. Upon employing on the SA, we achieved stable fundamental mode-locking (FML) at central wavelength of 1562.4 nm with pulse duration as short as 320 fs. By adjusting the intracavity polarization state at maximum pump power of 395 mW, we obtained stable femtosecond harmonic soliton pulse generation with repetition rate of 2.95 GHz and output power of 45.3 mW. Our results demonstrated that the microfiber-based TI PLD film SA is a promising device for practical multi-GHz ultrashort pulses generation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (15)

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Soliton Rains In A Graphene-Oxide Passively Mode-Locked Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser With All-Normal Dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(2), 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. P. Sun, Z. Q. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Preparation of Few-Layer Bismuth Selenide by Liquid-Phase-Exfoliation and its Optical Absorption Properties,” Sci Rep 4, 4794 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Yu, Y. R. Song, J. R. Tian, Z. Y. Dou, H. Y. Guoyu, K. X. Li, H. W. Li, and X. P. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (13)

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain and P. Grelu, “Multi-gigahertz repetition-rate-selectable passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10897–10902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, Z. Kang, G. Qin, J. Zhou, and W. Qin, “Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27992–28000 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Carvalho, R. M. Ribeiro, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Band nesting and the optical response of two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 88(11), 115205 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (13)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285(13-14), 3174–3178 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, B. Y. Kim, and D. I. Yeom, “Toward higher-order passive harmonic mode-locking of a soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1862–1864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. Rozhin, and S. Turitsyn, “Passively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 884–890 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, Ph. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Quantization of binding energy of structural solitons in passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016616 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantizationin in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. Luck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).

1992 (2)

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, and I. Andonovic, “Sideband generation through perturbations to the average soliton model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(10), 1329–1333 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285(13-14), 3174–3178 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

Andonovic, I.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, and I. Andonovic, “Sideband generation through perturbations to the average soliton model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(10), 1329–1333 (1992).
[Crossref]

Andrei, E.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arif, R.

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bansal, N.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, and I. Andonovic, “Sideband generation through perturbations to the average soliton model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(10), 1329–1333 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brahlek, M.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. Luck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

Cai, Z. P.

Carvalho, A.

A. Carvalho, R. M. Ribeiro, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Band nesting and the optical response of two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 88(11), 115205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. Carvalho, R. M. Ribeiro, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Band nesting and the optical response of two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 88(11), 115205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cava, R. J.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Checkelsky, J. G.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, D. K.

Cho, W. B.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

Chouli, S.

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y. D.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Debnath, P.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Der Au, J. A.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. Luck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).

Dou, Z. Y.

Du, J.

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, L.

Edrey, E.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, T.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, B.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Gao, W. L.

Gong, Y. K.

Grelu, P.

Grelu, Ph.

Grodecki, K.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, A. B.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

Guoyu, H. Y.

Gustafsson, T.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haboucha, A.

Han, D. D.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
[PubMed]

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y. P.

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. Luck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).

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Kim, K.

Kim, Y. S.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on si (111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 224–229 (2011).
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Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Li, G. H.

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Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
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Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
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Li, K. X.

Li, X. L.

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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Lin, G.-R.

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Lin, Z. Q.

L. P. Sun, Z. Q. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Preparation of Few-Layer Bismuth Selenide by Liquid-Phase-Exfoliation and its Optical Absorption Properties,” Sci Rep 4, 4794 (2014).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Liu, L.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
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M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Liu, X. M.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
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L. Wang, X. M. Liu, Y. K. Gong, D. Mao, and L. Duan, “Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7616–7624 (2011).
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Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Lu, H.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
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Lu, S. B.

Luck, R. F.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. Luck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).

Luo, A. P.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

Luo, Z. C.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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L. P. Sun, Z. Q. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Z. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Preparation of Few-Layer Bismuth Selenide by Liquid-Phase-Exfoliation and its Optical Absorption Properties,” Sci Rep 4, 4794 (2014).
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Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
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Ma, J.

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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
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X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
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Meng, Y. C.

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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Murakami, Y.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Oh, S.

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Ong, N. P.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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Paletko, P.

Park, J.

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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yan, P. G.

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Soliton Rains In A Graphene-Oxide Passively Mode-Locked Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser With All-Normal Dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(2), 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
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Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Yang, C.-Y.

Yang, Q.-H.

Yazdani, A.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Yu, H. H.

Yu, Z. H.

Yuan, P.

Zeng, C.

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[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, L.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Zhang, S. M.

Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Passive harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping power based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(7), 537–541 (2012).
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Y. C. Meng, S. M. Zhang, X. L. Li, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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Zhang, X.

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Zhang, X. P.

Zhao, B.

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D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016616 (2005).
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Zhao, C.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, D.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
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Zhao, J. Q.

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Soliton Rains In A Graphene-Oxide Passively Mode-Locked Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser With All-Normal Dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(2), 025102 (2014).
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S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
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Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016616 (2005).
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D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantizationin in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zheng, X. W.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Zhou, J.

Zhou, M.

Zhu, H.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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IEEE Photon. J. (1)

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Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Soliton Rains In A Graphene-Oxide Passively Mode-Locked Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser With All-Normal Dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(2), 025102 (2014).
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Opt. Express (16)

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S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
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S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (7)

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (8836 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (14285 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (8503 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (14665 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characteristics of the microfiber-based TI film SA, (a) SEM of side surface; (b) Leaky field from side; (c) Filmy thickness; (d) Enlarged filmy surface; (e) Measured XRD pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Nonlinear saturable transmission curve of microfiber-base TI film SA; (b) The transmission spectrum measured at ~350 W of incident peak power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the passive HML fiber laser with microfiber-base TI film SA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance of FML state. (a) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace, (b) RF spectrum.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Harmonic number and output power versus pump power. (Media 1, Media 2, Media 3, and Media 4).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Performance of HML state at 1.55 GHz. (a) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace, (b) RF spectrum with a span of 3 GHz and a SMSR at a level of 50 dB (inset: RF spectrum with a span of 1 MHz and a SMSR at a level of 75 dB).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Laser performance at 2.23 GHz and 2.95 GHz. (a,b) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace for case of 2.23 GHz, RF spectrum with a span of 3 GHz and a SMSR at a level of 48 dB, (c,d) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace for case of 2.95 GHz, RF spectrum with a span of 3 GHz and a SMSR at a level of 37 dB.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Passive HML EDFL performance of this work with others. * Not available.

Equations (1)

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T( I )=1ΔT×exp( I I sat ) T ns

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