Abstract

We demonstrate an electro-optic method to tune the correlated color temperature (CCT) of white light-emitting-diode (WLED) with a color conversion film, consisting of fluorescent dichroic dye doped in a liquid crystal host. By controlling the molecular reorientation of dichroic dyes, the power ratio of the transmitted blue and red lights of the white light can be accurately manipulated, resulting in different CCT. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we showed that the CCT of a yellow phosphor-converted WLED can be tuned from 3200 K to 4100 K. With further optimizations, the tuning range could be enlarged to 2500 K with fairly good color performance: luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) > 300 lm/W, color rendering index (CRI) > 75, and Duv < 0.005. Besides, the operation voltage is lower than 5 V and good angular color uniformity is achieved with remote-phosphor coating. This approach is promising for next generation smart lighting.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (1)

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

J. Hecht, “Changing the lights: Are LEDs ready to become the market standard,” Optics and Photonics News 23(3), 44–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Chiu, Y.-N. Peng, Y.-H. Wang, T.-H. Yang, T.-Y. Chung, and C.-Y. Chung, “High uniformity in angular correlated-color-temperature distribution of white LEDs from 2800K to 6500K,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6622–6630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Murphy., “Maximum spectral luminous efficacy of white light,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 104909 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 513–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “White organic lighting-emitting diodes based on blue fluorescent bia(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(hpb)2] doped with DCM dye,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 234–237 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs,” J. Light & Vis. Env. 32(2), 115–119 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

T. Uchida and M. Wada, “Guest-host type liquid crystal displays,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.  63(1), 19–43 (1981).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Artem’ev, M. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Artemyev, M. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baranoff, E.

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bliznikas, Z.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Breive, K.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

Broer, D. J.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, C.-Y.

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-C.

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, S.-H.

Chen, W.-T.

Cheng, Y.-J.

Chiu, C.-Y.

Choi, H. W.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 513–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chung, C.-Y.

Chung, T.-Y.

Collins, D.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Debije, M. G.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. J.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaponenko, S. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gorohmaru, H.

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grätzel, M.

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurinovich, L. I.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hardin, B. E.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, J.

J. Hecht, “Changing the lights: Are LEDs ready to become the market standard,” Optics and Photonics News 23(3), 44–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Hermans, K.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoke, E. T.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

Huang, C.-C.

Hung, C.-W.

Ishi-i, T.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jun, Y. C.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadowaki, M.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, A.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “White organic lighting-emitting diodes based on blue fluorescent bia(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(hpb)2] doped with DCM dye,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 234–237 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karlicek, R. F.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelley, D. F.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krupic, J.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

Kuo, Y.-Y.

Kurilcik, G.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lai, P. T.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 513–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lin, C.-C.

Liu, Y.

Ludoeise, M. J.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Lutich, A. A.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyo, S. K.

Lyutich, A. A.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mataka, S.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriyama, K.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murphy, T. W.

T. W. Murphy., “Maximum spectral luminous efficacy of white light,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 104909 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Narendran, N.

Y. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs,” J. Light & Vis. Env. 32(2), 115–119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Navickas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novickovas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Péchy, P.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

Peng, Y.-N.

Prislopsky, S. Y.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “White organic lighting-emitting diodes based on blue fluorescent bia(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(hpb)2] doped with DCM dye,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 234–237 (2009).
[Crossref]

Raskauskas, V.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rupsys, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rusakov, E. K.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sher, C.-W.

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “White organic lighting-emitting diodes based on blue fluorescent bia(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(hpb)2] doped with DCM dye,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 234–237 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stegerwald, D. A.

D. A. Stegerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludoeise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stupak, A. P.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Subramania, G. S.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-C.

Thiemann, T.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Torres, T.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Display Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida and M. Wada, “Guest-host type liquid crystal displays,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.  63(1), 19–43 (1981).
[Crossref]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verbunt, P. P. C.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vitta, P.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wada, M.

T. Uchida and M. Wada, “Guest-host type liquid crystal displays,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.  63(1), 19–43 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, G. T.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. H.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 513–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-H.

Wenger, S.

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xu, S.

Yamaguchi, R.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.-H.

Yeh, C.-C.

Yum, J. H.

B. E. Hardin, J. H. Yum, E. T. Hoke, Y. C. Jun, P. Péchy, T. Torres, M. L. Brongersma, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and M. D. McGehee, “High excitation transfer efficiency from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yum, J.-H.

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, R. Yamaguchi, K. Moriyama, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-i, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Highly dichroic benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole dyes containing five linearly π-conjugated aromatic residues, with fluorescent emission ranging from green to red, in a liquid crystal guest–host system,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(8), 736–740 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Gorohmaru, M. Kadowaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Ishi-I, T. Thiemann, and S. Mataka, “Benzo-2, 1, 3-thiadiazole-based, highly dichroic fluorescent dyes for fluorescent host-guest liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(12), 1901–1904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 513–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs,” J. Light & Vis. Env. 32(2), 115–119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling light emission in luminescent solar concentrators through use of dye molecules aligned in a planar manner by liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Optical Mater. (1)

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek., “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

J.-H. Yum, E. Baranoff, S. Wenger, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Panchromatic engineering for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(3), 842–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral power distribution of white source with three different correlated color temperatures. The three primary wavelengths are centered at R = 605 nm, G = 540 nm, B = 460 nm. (6500 K: LER = 346.9 lm/W, Duv = 0.9e-5, CRI = 82.7; 4500 K: LER = 380.5 lm/W, Duv = 1.0e-4, CRI = 81.8; 2500 K: LER = 421.3 lm/W, Duv = 4.4e-4, CRI = 76.0)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Device configuration of the proposed CCT-tunable white light source with a remote phosphor WLED and a switchable guest-host LC cell as color conversion layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Chemical structures of (a) DCM and (b) 5CB.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured spectral power distribution of white light with different voltages, (b) relationship between CCT and applied voltage.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 CCT in C.I.E. 1960 chromaticity diagram obtained by different applied voltages.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Angular color uniformity of the proposed CCT tunable light source. CCF stands for color conversion film.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated spectral power distribution of white light with different voltages.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Color performance of the proposed CCT tunable WLED.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated color performance based on the spectral power distribution of Fig. 7.

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