Abstract

We report on a packaged prototype of a WDM photonic transceiver. It is an all-solid state hybrid assembly based on 130nm SOI photonic circuitry integrated with a 40nm CMOS VLSI driver. Our prototype supports eight tunable WDM channels operating at 10Gb/s, each capable of both transmitting and receiving data on the same chip. We discuss two options to close the link using the optical fiber or a waveguide bridge chip. We provide integration details and supporting link measurement data to describe packaged photonic module and its power efficient functionality with its on-chip power per channel averaging 1.3pJ/bit, excluding off-chip laser electrical power.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Asghari, M.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baks, C.

Bickford, J.

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, Y. K.

Chow, E.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Dayringer, M.

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

Downie, J. D.

Feng, D.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gainsley, J.

Gu, T.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jahnes, C.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Kuchta, D. M.

Lee, B. G.

Lee, D. C.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J.-H.

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Li, J.

Libsch, F.

Liu, F.

Luo, Y.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Mekis, A.

Mitchell, J. G.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moghadam, H. F.

Neilson, D. T.

Park, N.

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patil, D.

Pinguet, T.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Ruffin, A.

Rylyakov, A. V.

Schow, C. L.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Sinsky, J. H.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Yao, J.

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with Silicon nanophotonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 546–558 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Shubin, G. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, N. Park, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Integration, processing and performance of low power thermally tunable CMOS-SOI WDM resonators,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 589–604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. Yao, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J.-H. Lee, J. Bickford, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Low loss optical interlayer coupling using reflector-enhanced grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects (IEEE, 2013), 31–32.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, P. Huapu, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, G. Xiaoxiong, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90nm CMOS integrated Nano-Photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 33.8.1–33.8.3 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhan, E. Timurdogan, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “An on-chip partial drop wavelength selective broadcast network” in CLEO:2014, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SF2O.4.Er.

M. Rakowski, M. Pantouvaki, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, M. Ingels, and J. Hongtao Chen, De Coster, G. Lepage, B. Snyder, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, N. Pavarelli, Jun Su Lee, P. O'Brien, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “A 4×20Gb/s WDM ring-based hybrid CMOS silicon photonics transceiver,” in Proceedings of2015IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC).

S. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Highly uniform and low-loss passive silicon photonics devices using a 300mm CMOS platform,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.
[Crossref]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photonic chip layout. Top: two looped-waveguides with eight modulator (Tx 1x8 array) and demux (Rx 1x8 array) rings per waveguide-bus. The insets to the right show a top CAD view of the ring modulator and detector with its demux ring filter. Two additional pads in each device are used to drive resistive loads for thermal wavelength tuning. Bridge waveguide jumper or a routing layer resides on the second photonic chip. Bottom: schematic view of the resulting WDM link where OPxC GCs are connected with an external waveguide (w/g).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Left: 4x5mm2 VLSI chip for FC integration with photonic chip. Labeled are the respective cell columns with Tx ring modulator drivers and Rx receivers. The photonic chip partially overlaps with its VLSI counterpart after flip chip attach such that two columns of pads at the bottom of the chip can be used for its wirebonding to the PCB for power delivery. Right: magnified top view of the four pad (17x17 µm2) individual Rx cell.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic cross-section of the hybrid MCM photonic module with post-processed features. (b) Top schematic view of the MCM with three chips to hybridize. Points A-D designate respective locations of our optical power measurements discussed further on in the test section.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Under-bump metallization and micro-bumps fabricated on the VLSI chip device pads. (b) Graph of the thermal tuning power per free spectral range (FSR) of the photonic ring as a function of the VLSI-to-photonic chip separation (filled with epoxy). (c) SU-8 spacers integrated with micro-bumps to establish a predetermined chip-to-chip bondline for higher thermal tuning efficiency.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3-D surface topology of the OPxC grating coupler after the Si substrate underneath is completely etched off and SOI/BOX membrane is released. Images are of an actual sample taken with an interferometric microscope: (a) Without top SiNx stress balancing layer there is a warp of up to 5 µm; (b) With stress balancing layer the GC membrane is flattened out.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Images of completely post-processed GCs on the bridge chip in the passive flow reticle with Cr/Au mirror added to the backside: (a) front-side view of the GCs; (b) front-side view of the diced out 4.5x7.5mm2 bridge chip by DRIE atop its original reticle. The bridge is placed next to the rectangular opening in the reticle where it was etched out from; (c) back-side view of the finished link’s bridge chip. There are several openings seen in the bridge’s substrate. In addition to the two OPxC mirror openings of 100µm diameter, we added several circular ports to enable coarse and fine chip alignment by, for example, accessing the output Rx GC coupler with a multimode optical fiber for monitoring (250µm diameter).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images of the completely post-processed GCs of the island chip in the full-flow with front-side dielectrics removed and back-side Cr/Au mirror added. Right: SEM image of a single grating coupler after post-processing. A dashed line outlines the grating coupler.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Images of the hybridized VLSI/photonic link module showing back-side substrate undercuts on the photonic Tx/Rx chip. Both Tx and Rx ring arrays as well as the grating couplers have been undercut. Grating couplers have also been finished with a Cr/Au mirror selectively deposited into the respective substrate openings.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Side view microscopic image of the aligned face-to-face photonic chips with input PM fiber array and output multimode fiber that is inserted through the bridge chip to couple the light from the Tx/Rx chip link’s output GC. (b) Three chip hybrid prior to PCB-attach and wirebonding.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 PCB mounted hybrid pair for high speed characterization in the optical setup.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measured eight-channel Tx/Rx transmission spectra from a hybrid photonic module after wavelength tuning is completed using a tunable input laser source with an output power of −2.5dBm.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured optical eye diagrams for all 8 Tx channels at a data rate of 10.02Gbps with 231-1 PRBS data from on-chip PRBS generators.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 10.02Gbps BER eye plots for eight Rx channels with received average photo-current of about 20µA.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Measured 10.02Gbps BER eye plots for all eight linked channels.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 WDM link rings’ structural parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the fully tested 8-wavelength WDM link performance at 10Gbs averaging about 1.3pJ/bit (on-chip power consumption, not accounting for external laser electrical power and its coupling loss).

Metrics