Abstract

A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber ringdown pressure sensors,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 352–354 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. J. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44(3), 030503 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Wang, “Fiber Loop Ringdown - a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7595–7621 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Li, Y. Qiu, S. Chen, S. Liu, and Z. Huang, “Multichannel-fiber ringdown sensor based on time-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 3022–3024 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, “Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23(11), 843–845 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber Loop Ringdown for Physical Sensor Development: Pressure Sensor,” Appl. Opt. 43(35), 6458–6464 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Wang, “Fiber Loop Ringdown - a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7595–7621 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Li, Y. Qiu, S. Chen, S. Liu, and Z. Huang, “Multichannel-fiber ringdown sensor based on time-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 3022–3024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Atherton, K.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chevalier, D.

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.

Herath, C.

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

Huang, Z.

Huber, R.

Kaya, M.

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. Y.

Li, G.

Liu, S.

Liu, S. C.

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

Ni, N.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

Richardson, D. J.

Scherrer, S. T.

Shum, P.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, F.

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

Taira, K.

Wang, C.

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, “Fiber Loop Ringdown - a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7595–7621 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber ringdown pressure sensors,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 352–354 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber Loop Ringdown for Physical Sensor Development: Pressure Sensor,” Appl. Opt. 43(35), 6458–6464 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. J.

C. J. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44(3), 030503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xia, L.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. B.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. L.

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J. T.

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. (1)

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(16), 1351–1353 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Herath, C. Wang, M. Kaya, and D. Chevalier, “Fiber loop ringdown DNA and bacteria sensors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 843–849 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. J. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44(3), 030503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. C. Liu, Y. L. Yu, J. T. Zhang, and F. Sun, “A novel interrogation technique for time—division multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 67812M (2007).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

C. Wang, “Fiber Loop Ringdown - a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7595–7621 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed FLRD sensors array. WSFL, wavelength-swept fiber laser; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PD, photo detector; OC, 1:99 optical coupler; ISO, optical isolator; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; IMG, index matching gel; DSP, digital signal processing; Switch, multi-switches array; CPLD, complex programmable logic device, SG1, signal generator for driving the AOM; SG2, signal generator for driving the F-P filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The timing relationships among control and sensing signals of the FBG-FLRD sensors array.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The diagram of the process of decoupling the system ringdown signals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The waveforms related to interrogation. Trace1, time domain output data of five ringdown sensors; Trace2, the driving signal of the F-P filter; Trace3, the driving signal of the AOM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The coupled output signals of the system and the decoupling outputs. Trace 1, the outputs of the five elements; Trace 2, the decoupled 1st ringdown signal; Trace 3, the decoupled 2nd ringdown signal; Trace 4, the decoupled 4th ringdown signal; right illustration, the enlarged figures of 1st, 2nd, and 4th ringdown signals.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Ringdown signals versus different external forces applied on 2nd FLRD. Plot 1, P1 = 0 N; Plot 2, P2 = 1.5 N; Plot 3, P3 = 3.0 N; Plot 4, P4 = 4.5N; Plot 5, P5 = 6.0N.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The relation between F and 1/τi −1/τi0.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Timing parameters of the experiment

Equations (5)

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n Δt =Δt× f AOM = Δ λ FBG3dB × f AOM Δ λ span × f WSFL
f AOM f WSFL Δ λ span Δ λ FBG3dB
1/ f WSFL >>1/ f AOM > τ i > τ trip > τ AOM
τ i 0 = n L i c A i
1 τ i 1 τ i0 = cβ l i n L i F

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